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Cell Structure

Cell structure and function

QuestionAnswer
Cells -Smallest living unit -Most are microscopic
Who discovered cells? Robert Hooke
When were cells discovered? Mid-1600
When/ who was the term "all living things are made of cells" discovered? In 1839 by Theodor Schwann & Matthias Schleiden
When/ who was the term "all cells come from cells" discovered? In 1889 by Rudolf Virchow
What are some principles of cell theory? -All living things are made of cells -Smallest living unit of structure and function of all organisms is the cell -All cells arise from preexisting cells (this principle discarded the idea of spontaneous generation)
Do cells have large surface area-to-volume ratios? Yes
What are the characteristics of all cells? -A surrounding membrane -Protoplasm; cell contents in thick fluid -Organelles; structures for cell function -control center with DNA
What are the two types of cells? 1. Prokaryotic 2. Eukaryotic
Prokaryotic Cells -First cell type on earth -Cell type of bacteria and archaea -No membrane bound necleus -Nucleoi = region of DNA concentration -Organelles not bound by membranes
Eukaryotic Cells -Nucleus bond by membrane -Include fungi, protists, plant, and animal cells -Possess many organelles
Organelles -Cellular machinery -Two general kinds; derived from membranes, bacteria-like organelles
Bacteria-like organelles -Derived from symbiotic bacteria -Ancient association -Endosymbiotic theory; evolution of modern cells from cells & symbiotic bacteria
Plasma membrane -Contains cell contents -Double layer of phospholids & proteins
Phospholipids -Polar; hydrophylic head, hydrophobic tail -Interacts with water
Movement across the plasma membrane -A few molecules move freely; water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, oxygen -Carrier proteins transport some molecules; proteins embedded in lipid bilayer, fluid mosaic model (describes fluid nature of a lipid bilayer with proteins)
Membrane Proteins 1. Channels or transporters -move molecules in one direction 2. Receptors -Recognize certain chemicals 3.Glycoproteins -identify cell type 4.Enzymes -catalyze production of substances
Cell walls -Found in plants, fungi, & many protists -Surrounds plasma membrane
What are the two different cell walls? 1. Plants- mostly cellulose 2. Fungi- contain chitin
Cytoplasm -Viscous fluid containing organelles components of cytoplasm -Components of cytoplasm; interconnected filaments & fibers, fluid = cytosol, organelles (not nucleus), storage substance
Membranous organelles -Functional components within cytoplasm -Bound by membranes
Nuclear envelope -Separates nucleus from rest of cell -Double membrane -Has pores
DNA -Hereditary material -Chromosomes; DNA, proteins, form for cell division
What do bacteria-like organelles do? -Release and store energy
Types of bacteria-like organelles -Mitochondria (release energy) -Chloroplasts (store energy)
Chloroplasts -Derived from photosynthetic bacteria -Solar energy capturing organelle
Photosynthesis -Takes place in the chloroplast -Makes cellular food; glucose
Molecule movement and cells -Passive transport -Active transport -Endocytosis -Exocytosis
Passive transport -No energy required -Move due to gradient; differences in concentration, pressure, charge -Move to equalize gradient; high moves toward low
Types of passive transport 1. Diffusion 2. Osmosis 3. Facilitated diffusion
Diffusion -Molecules move to equalize concentration
Osmosis -Special form of diffusion -Fluid flows from lower solute concentration -Often involves movement of water; into cell, out of cell
Solution differences and cells -Solvent + solute = solution -Hypotonic; solutes in cell more than outside, outside solvent will flow into cell -Isotonic; solutes equal inside and out of cell -Hypertonic; Solutes greater outside cell, fluid will flow out of cell
Facilitated diffusion -Differentially permeable membrane -Channels help molecule or ions enter or leave the cell -Channels usually are transport proteins -No energy is used
Process of facilitated transport -Protein binds with molecule -Shape of protein changes -Molecule moves across membrane
Active transport -Molecular movement -Requires energy Ex: sodium-potassium pump
Endocytosis -Movement of large material; particles, organisms, large molecules -Movement is into cells -Types of endocytosis; bulk-phase and receptor-mediated
Process of endocytosis -Plasma membrane surrounds material -Edges of membrane meet -Membranes fuse to form vesicle
Forms of endocytosis 1. Phagocytosis - cell eating 2. Pinocytosis - cell drinking
Exocytosis -Reverse of endocytosis -Cell discharges material -Vesicle moves to cell surface -Membrane of vesicle fuses -Materials expelled
Created by: kieren1