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Chapter 5

Cell Growth and Division

TermDefinition
cell cycle regular pattern of growth, DNA duplication, and cell division in eukaryotic cells
mitosis division of the cell nucleus and its contents
cytokinesis process that divides the cell cytoplasm- results in two daughter cells that are genetically identical to the original cell
chromosome one long continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes along with regulatory information
histone a group of proteins with which each chromosome is associated
chromatin the complex protein and DNA that makes up the chromosome
chromatid one half of a duplicated chromosome
centromere a region of the condensed chromosome that looks pinched- holds sister chromatids together
telomere formed by the end of a DNA molecule; made of repeating nucleotides that do not form genes
prophase chromatin condenses into tightly coiled chromosomes; nuclear envelope breaks down; centrosomes/ centrioles migrate; spindle fibers grow
metaphase spindle fibers attach to a protein structure on the centromere of each chromosome and align the chromosomes along the middle of the cell
anaphase sister chromatids separate from each other; spindle fibers begin to shorten, pulling the sister chromatids away from each other and toward opposite sides of the cell.
telophase complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell. The nuclear membranes start to form, the chromosomes begin to uncoil, and the spindle fibers fall apart.‚Äč
growth factor broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division; bind to receptors to activate specific genes to trigger cell growth
apoptosis programmed cell death
cancer uncontrolled cell division
benign a tumor where cells typically remain clustered together
malignant a tumor where come cells break away
metastasize cells breaking away from a tumor
carcinogen substance known to produce or promote the development of cancer
asexual reproduction production of offspring from a single parent and does not involve the joining of gametes
binary fission asexual reproduction of a single-celled organism by which the cell divides into two cells of the same sixe
tissue groups of cells that work together to perform a similar function
organ groups of tissues that work together to perform a specific or related function
organ system organs that carry out similar functions
cell differentiation process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific structure or functions during multicellular development
stem cell unique type of body cell that can 1) divide to renew itself for long periods of time 2) remain undifferentiated in form 3) differentiate into a variety of specialized cell types
Created by: kaseywallace