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09 Sports Science

Review of key vocabulary related to homeostasis

homeostasis The maintenance of a constant internal environment.
stimulus Something that acts on an organism to bring about a change in activity.
response An action brought about by an effector.
receptor Something which detects a stimulus.
effector Something which brings about a response to a stimulus.
retina An area of the eye that contains light receptors.
coordination The nervous and endocrine system carry out this function.
reflex A type of action carried out without thinking.
neurotransmitter A chemical substance which transmits a message across a synapse.
cerebellum Part of the brain controlling complex muscle movements.
meninges Layers of connective tissue which protect the brain.
interneurons Nerve cells which transfer information between other neurons. Connect sensory neurons to motor neurons.
synapses Small gaps between neurons.
cerebrum Part of the brain responsible for complex thoughts.
motor neurons Neurons that carry messages from the central nervous system to muscles and glands.
peripheral nervous system The part of the nervous system made up of sensory receptors and nerves.
spinal cord Together with the brain, this structure makes up the central nervous system.
sensory neuron A nerve cell with ending sensitive to environmental stimuli.
axon Carries information away from a nerve cell body.
dendrite Carries information towards a nerve cell body.
myelin sheath Protective layer around the axon of a neuron.
medulla Part of the brain which controls breathing and heart beat.
hormone A chemical messenger.
pituatary The 'master' gland of the endocrine system.
adrenalin Known as the 'fight or flight' hormone.
insulin A deficiency of this hormone can cause diabetes.
hypothalamus Part of the brain which sends messages to the pituitary gland.
pancreas Organ that makes insulin.
testosterone Major male hormone.
human growth hormone (HGH) A deficieny of this hormone is one of the causes of dwarfism.
amygdala Part of the brain involved in recognising emotions
hippocampus Part of the brain involved in short term memory.
Created by: cindybb
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