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functions of skeletal system support, protects, movement, hematopoiesis
four major types of bones long(humerus) short(carpals) flat (frontal) irregular (spinal)
diaphysis or shaft hollow tube of hard compact bone (shaft of long bone)
epiphyses or end of long bone made of spongy bone that contains red bone marrow
hematopoiesis occurs ends of long bones
structure of flat bones thin layer of compact bone surrounding cancellous (spongy or diploe) bone Open spaces within spongy bone are surrounded by bony trabeculae
compact bone structural unit is an osteon calcified matrix arranged in multiple layers or rings covered by periosteum (dense)
bone cells osteocytes
spongy bones found in epiphyses of bones appears porous spaces contain red blood marrow texture results from trabeculae
osteoblasts bone building cells
Bone remodeling continuing "sculpting " by osteoblasts and osteoclasts bones giving the abiltiy to ossify, grow, change shape, heal
skeleton can still grow as long as there is cartilage left in the epiphyseal plate
epiphyseal line (bone) replaces ? when growth ceases epiphyseal plate (cartliage)
sternum and sacrum are part of the axial skeleton
appendicular skeleton (126) bones upper extremities- shoulder (pectoral) girdle lower extremities- hip (pelvic) girdle
skeletal divisons axial and appendicular
true ribs pairs 1-7 attached to sternum
false ribs pairs 8-10 , attached to cartilage 7
floating ribs pairs 11-12, no anterior attachment
shape of pelvis male pelvis deep and narrow female broad and shallow
pubic angle in female female wider for baby to pass (greater than 90 degrees)
osteoporosis loss of calicified bone matrix bones fracture easily occurs most in postmenopausal woman with calcium deficiencies
rickets and osteomalacia both characterized by loss of bone minerals related to vitamin D.
rickets bowing of legs because of insufficient amount of vitamin D in children. Prevents bone mineralization
osteoarthritis deterioration of the bone in a joint through wear and tear.
Rheumatoid arthritis an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks the joints causing swelling, pain, inflammation.
osteoclast cell that breaks down bone (resorption)
collagen the organic component that makes up the fibers in bones.
Calcium phosphate The inorganic mineral composition of bone
Created by: PRO Teacher jhaase