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Ch 17

Ch 17: Disease and Reistance

QuestionAnswer
Active immunity the immune system responds to antigen by producing antibodies and specific lymphocytes
Acute period The phase of disease in which specific symptoms occur and the disease is at its height
Antibody a highly specific protein produced by the body in response to a foreign substance
Antibody-mediated immunity the form of acquired immunity conferred to an individual through the activity of B cells and the production of antibodies
Antigen a substance that stimulates an immune response
Antigen binding site the region on antibody that binds to an antigen
Antigenic determinant a section of an antigen molecule that binds to the antibody binding site and stimulates an immune response
Epitope a section of an antigen molecule that binds to the antibody binding site and stimulates an immune response
Antitoxin an antibody produced by the body that circulates in the blood stream to provide protection against toxins by neutralizing them
Avirulent referring to an organism that is not likely to cause disease
Biological vector an infected arthropod that transmits disease-causing organisms between hosts
B lymphocyte a white blood cell that matures into memory cells and plasma cells that secrete antibody
Carrier an individual that has recovered from a disease but retains and continues to shed the infectious agent
Cell mediated immunity the body’s ability to resist infection through the activity of T-lymphocyte recognition of antigen peptides presented on macrophages and dendritic cells and on infected cells
Commensalism a close an permanent association between two species of organisms in which one species benefits and the other remains unharmed or unaffected
Cytotoxic T cells The type of T-lymphocyte that searches out and destroys infected cells
Diagnosis the process of identifying a disease, illness or problem by examining an individual
Direct contact the form of disease transmission involving close association between hosts
Droplet an airborne particle of mucus and sputum from the respiratory tract that contains disease-causing microorganisms
Endemic referring to a constant presence of disease or persistence of an infectious agent at low levels in a population
Endotoxin a metabolic poison, produced chiefly by gram-negative bacteria that are part of the bacterial cell wall, composed of lipid-polysaccharide-protein complexes
Fecal-oral route a route of disease transmission, where pathogens in fecal material pass from one person and are introduced into the oral cavity of another person
Fever an abnormally high body temperature that is usually caused by a bacterial or viral infection
Fomite an inanimate object that carries disease organisms
Heavy chain the larger polypeptide in an antibody molecule
Helper T cell A T-lymphocyte that enhances the activity of B-lymphocytes and stimulates destruction of macrophages infected with bacteria
Host an organism infected by a pathogen
Hyaluronidase an enzyme that digests hyaluronic acid and thereby permits the penetration of pathogens through connective tissue
Incubation period the time that elapses between the entry of a pathogen into the host and the appearance of signs and symptoms
Indirect contact the mode of disease transmission involving nonliving objects
Infection The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites that are not normally present within the body
Infectious dose the number of microorganisms needed to bring about infection
Inflammation a nonspecific defense response to injury; usually characterized by redness, warmth, swelling and pain
Interferon an antiviral protein produced by body cells upon exposure to viruses
Invasiveness the ability of a pathogen to spread from one point to adjacent areas in the host and cause structural damage to those tissues
Light chain a smaller polypeptide in an antibody
Lymphocyte a type of white blood cell that functions in the immune system
Lysozyme an enzyme found in tears and saliva that digests the peptidoglycan of gram-positive bacterial cell walls
Macrophage a large cell derived from monocytes that is found within various tissues and actively engulfs foreign material
Mechanical vector a living organisms, or object, that transmits disease agents on its surface
Memory B cell a cell derived from B lymphocytes that reacts rapidly upon re-exposure to an antigen
Memory T cell a cell derived from T lymphocytes that reacts rapidly upon re-exposure to an antigen
Mucus a sticky secretion of viscous fluid
Mucous membrane a moist lining in the body passages of all mammals that contains mucus-secreting cells and is directly or indirectly to the external environment
Mutualism a close and permanent association between two populations if organisms in which both benefit from the association
Opportunistic referring to pathogens that only cause disease when the person’s immune system is weakened
Outbreak a small, localized epidemic
Pandemic refers to a disease occurring over a wide geographic area (worldwide) and affecting a substantial proportion of the global population
Parasitism a close association between two organisms in which one (the parasite) feeds on the other (the host) and may cause injury to the host
Passive immunity the temporary immunity that comes from receiving antibodies from another source
Pathogenicity the ability of a disease-causing agent to gain entry to a host and bring about a physiological or anatomical change interpreted as disease
Period of convalescence the phase of disease during which the body’s systems return to normal
Period of decline the phase of disease during which the symptoms subside
Phagocyte a white blood cell capable of engulfing and destroying foreign materials or cells
Phagocytosis a process by which foreign material or cells are taken into a white blood cell and destroyed
Plasma cell an antibody-producing cell derived from B lymphocytes
Portal of entry the site at which a pathogen enters the host
Portal of exit the site at which a pathogen exits the host
Probiotic living microbes that help reestablish or maintain the human microbiota of the gut
Prodromal phase the phase of disease during which general symptoms occur in the body
Pyrogen a fever producing substance
Reservoir the location or organism where disease-causing agents exist and maintain their ability for infection
Serum the fluid portion of the blood consisting of water, minerals, salts, proteins, and other organic substances including antibodies
Sign a indication of the presence of a disease
Symbiosis an interrelationship between two populations of organisms where there is a close permanent association
Symptom an indication of some disease or other disorder that is experienced by the patient
Syndrome a collection of signs or symptoms that together are characteristic of a disease
T lymphocyte a type of white blood cell that matures in the thymus gland and is associated with cell-mediated immunity
Toxin a poisonous chemical substance produced by an organism
Toxoid a preparation of microbial toxin that has been rendered harmless by chemical treatment but that is capable of stimulating antibodies
Virulence the degree to which a pathogen is capable of causing a disease
zoonosis a disease spread from another animal to humans
Created by: drmicro