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Cell Communication

What is a signal-transduction pathway? a series of steps by which a signal on a cell's surface is converted into a specific cellular response
what other types of signaling? - local regulators are messenger molecules that travel only short distances - In long-distance signaling, plants and animals use chemicals called hormones
What are the 3 processes that cells receiving signals go through? - Reception - Transduction - Response
what is reception? a signal molecule binds to a receptor protein, causing it to change shape
What are intracellular receptors? found in cytosol or nucleus of target cells
what are the 3 main types of membrane receptors? - G protein linked receptors - Receptor tyrosine Kinases - Ion channel receptors
What are G protein linked receptors? - plasma membrane receptor that works with help of a G protein - G protein acts as an on/off switch, if GDP is bound to the G protein then it is inactive
What are tyrosine Kinase? - membrane receptors that attach phosphates to tyrosines - can trigger multiple signal transduction pathways at once
What are Ion channel receptor? - acts as a gate when the receptor changes shape - when a signal molecule binds as a ligand to the receptor the gate allows specific ions, such as Na + or Ca+ to go through
What are the molecules that relay a signal from receptor to response? Proteins
In many pathways the signal is transmitted by a cascade of protein called? phosphorylations
what do phosphate enzymes do? they reverse the phosphorylation and remove the phosphate
what are second messengers? small, non protein, water soluble molecules or ions
Created by: young kodak