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Biology Exam 4

main function is protection; involved with secretions; lines all tubes internally Epithelial tissue
what are the three main types of epithelial tissues squamous, cuboidal, columnar
normal in the trachea stratified epithelium
cancer in most other places pseudostratifield epithelium
connective cells always secrete what a matrix around them
matrix can be what solid (bone) or liquid (blood)
which is further subdivided into loose and dense connective tissue proper
consists of cells scattered in an amorphous matrix of protein loose connective tissue
loose connective tissue includes what collagen, elastin, adipose (fat) cells
consists of tightly packed collagen fibers that resemble the strands of a rope dense connective tissue
dense connective tissue includes what tendons and ligaments
tendons do what bind muscle to bone
holds bone to bone ligaments
what are the types of vertebrate muscles skeletal, visceral, cardiac
voluntary striated muscle skeletal
each fiber is multi nucleated and shows alternating light-dark bands and zones Skeletal
involuntary smooth muscle visceral
spindle shaped cells with a single nucleus per muscle fiber visceral
involuntary striated muscle of heart cardiac
cells are bigurcated and show intercalated discs which involve numerous gap junctions cardiac
nerve cells for transmitting impulses which are neurons
supporting cells neuroglia
neurons with dendrite extensions to what pull impulses in to the cell body
neurons with axon extensions to what carry impulses from the cell body to the next neuron
maintaining a relatively stable internal envirnment homeostasis
of the vertebrate brain acts as the integrating center to monitor changes in homeostasis of body by using sensory and nerve cells hypothalamus
to maintain homeostasis is through what feedback loop
which respond to stimulus from the environment in the opposite (reverse) direction as antagonistic effectors negative feedback
what happens when negative feed back restustains homeostasis it shuts down
which drive the normal value of the controlled variable even further away from the normal range these are not involved with maintaining homeostasis postive feedback
externally heated ectothermic
internally heated endothermic
variable temperature poikilothermic
uniform temperature homeothermic
use of countercurrent exchange system in whale flippers etc to minimize heat loss to the environment regulation of heat loss in cold environment
normally performed in mammals by perspiration "sweating" some mammals only have sweat glands only confined to certain parts of their bodies and must cool themselves by panting (dogs) or keeping their bodies moist regulation of heat loss in hot environment
control of body temperature in vertebrates involves what part of the brain hypothalamus
tp prepare for flight thermogenesis
what are the functions of the mouth maceration, lubrication, chemical breakdown
function of pharynx movement
function of stomach mechanical chemical breakdown liquefaction
function of small intestine completion of digestion in first 25 cm remainder is involved in absorption
function of large intestine reabsorption of water, minerals, vitamins,houses bacteria, lubricates undigested food mass
function of the rectum storage of undigested foods
function of anus elimination
type of gas exchange - diffusion unicellular organisms
type of gas change- cutaneous breathing earthworms, slugs, adult amphibians
type of gas exchange- invagination (papullae) part of the water vascular system of echinoderms
type of gas exchange- invagination (respiratory tree) echinoderm sea cucumbers
type of gas exchange- chitinous tracheal tubes and spiracles tracheal gills of insect larvae (mosquitoes) book lung with spiracles found in arachnids
types of gas exchange- evaginations gills - fish countercurrent exchange system operculum of bony fish how most bony fish respire
type of gas exchange- invaginations (lungs) terrestrial vertebrates related to bony fish swim bladder positive pressure breathing - gulps air negative pressure breathing- birds
states that the diffusion rate (R) of gases across a membrane depends on surface area (A) concentration of gases such as oxygen , etc differences and distance Fick's Law of Diffusion
what are the three basic needs of the respiratory system 1) must be of adequate dimensions 2) transportation (circulatory) system to allow more internal cells to undergo for gas exchange 3) means of protecting fragile respiratory system from damage 4) means of keeping the surface moist without severe water loss
what is the respiratory pigment found in erythrocytes hemoglobin
have no nucleus when mature so carry more O2 erythrocytes
are produced in the bone marrow and live for about 45 days erythrocytes
are immature erythrocytes released too early from bone marrow which causes anemia mononucleosis
what is the hemoglobin structure iron (Fe) molecule in center conjugated double bond system around Fe center four polypeptide chains
combines with oxygen in the lungs to from oxyhemoglobin deoxyhemoglobin
oxyhemoglobin dissociates to release its oxygen in the capillaries
the amount of O2 carried by hemoglobin is affected by what pH
poisonous carbon monoxide will also bind to hemoglobin and cause death called what carbon monoxide
hemoglobin can also be used to transport small amounts of CO2 which does what blood vessels relax
contains four polypeptide chains but contains a copper in molecule in center hence their blood is not red its a blue green color hemocyanin
what are the three major functions of human circulatory system transportation, regulation, protection
a. respiration - hemoglobin in erythrocytes b. nutritive c. excretory transportation
a. hormone transport b. temperature regulation regulation
a. blood clotting - use of platelets b. immune response - leukocytes protection
what is blood made up of 60% plasma + 40% cells about 6 liters of blood in the human body
what is plasma made of 60% of blood 90% water/ various substitutes 10% plasma proteins
dissolved plasma solutes- Metabolites sugars, amino acids, vitamins
dissolved plasma solutes- ions salt ions, bicarbonate ion, calcium, magnesium, zinc, etc
plasma proteins - albumins for hyper hyperosmosis
plasma proteins - globulins immunoglobulins = antibodies for defense made by leukocytes
plasma proteins - fibrinogen forms clots, serum= plasma minus fibrinogen
red blood cells with red respiratory pigment hemoglobin, produced in bone marrow, life span about 120 days , main function is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide erythrocytes
white blood cells, six major types, involved with eating invading pathogens, immune/ inflammatory leukocytes
made from pinched off pieces of specific bone marrow cells called megakayocytes platelets
initiated by torn tissue releasing histamines blood clotting
platelets add histamines to increase swelling blood clotting
leukocytes are attracted to histamines blood clotting
leukocytes squeeze out of capillaries to fight off invaders blood clotting
pus= dead leukocytes blood clotting
continuous with fourteen recognized steps leading to major reaction blood clotting
hemophilia bleeder's disease clot will not form blood clotting
used for both feeding and circulation gastrovascular cavity
anthropoids open circulatory system
annelid worms closed circulatory system
volume of blood pumped by each wnetricle per minute cardiac output
volume of blood moved in systemic or pulmonary circulations per minute cardiac output
about 5 to 6 Liters of blood resting in a person cardiac output
increased blood flow decrease transmural blood pressure vasodilation
decrease blood flow, increases transmural blood pressure vasodilation
in aortic arch of heart and in carotid artery in the neck baroreceptors
(CV) centers in the brainstem cardiovascular (CV)
negative feedback loop corrects fall in blood pressure and restores homeostasis
blood volume affect by four hormones
antidiuretic hormone= vasopressin - affects water reabsorption from the kidney ADH
affects salt reabsorption by the the kidney aldosterone
atrial natriuretic hormone- secreted by right atrium affects excretion of water and sodium (lowers blood pressure) ANH
carried by erythrocytes causes relaxation/ dilation of blood vessels Nitric Oxide (NO)
high blood pressure
stationary blood clot thrombus
heart attack thrombus
local anemia of heart muscle thrombus
cholesterol thrombus
dislodged blood clot embolus
pulmonary embolus embolus
pneumonia embolus
necrosis embolus
death of brain tissue stroke
in freshwater protozoans contractile vacuole
along the edges in flatworms flame cell
in every segment of an earthworm nephridia
in insects chitinous Malpighian tubules
Created by: esenkbeil