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Biology Cell Differentiation and Enzymes Quiz

an unborn or unhatched offspring in the process of development embryo
the process by which cells become specialized differentiation
the unspecialized cells from which differentiated cells develop stem cells
able to do everything, as far as forming all tissues in the body totipotent
a hollow ball of cells with a cluster of cells inside blastocyst
capable of developing into many, but not all, of the body's cell types pluripotent
found in the inner cells mass of the early embryo embryonic stem cells
can produce many types of differentiated cells multipotent
gathering stem cells from an embryo harvesting
a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change catalyst
protein acting as biological catalysts that speed up the chemical reactions of the cell enzymes
the energy required to start a reaction activation energy
the substance acted upon by an enzyme substrate
places on enzymes to which a specific substrate binds active sites
the breaking of many of the weak linkages, or bonds (e.g., hydrogen bonds), within a protein molecule denature
an enzyme found in potatoes that catalyzes the oxidation of a particular substrate by hydrogen peroxide catalase
an enzyme found in turnips that catalyzes the oxidation of a particular substrate by hydrogen peroxide peroxidase
breaks down proteins protease
breaks down lipids lipase
breaks down lactose in milk lactase
breakdown of complex molecules into two simpler molecules catabolism
use of enzymes to build complex molecules from simpler molecules anabolism
the compatibility of the shape of the active site and the shape of the enzyme enzyme specificity
occurs when another part of the enzymes bonds with a molecule that is not the substrate and the bonding occurs at a second site, called the allosteric site noncompetitive inhibition
occurs when a substance binds to the active site of an enzyme and prohibits normal substrate interaction competitive inhibition
The _______ _______ contains hundreds of different cell types, and every one of them develops from the single cell that starts the process. human body
Most multicellular organisms pass through an early stage of development called an _______, which gradually develops into an adult organism. embryo
During development, cells ______________ into many different types and become specialized to perform certain tasks. differentiate
_______________ cells carry out the jobs that multicellular organisms need to stay alive. Differentiated
Cell differentiation in mammals is controlled by a number of interacting factors in the ________. embryo
Adult cells generally reach a point at which their _______________ is complete and they can no longer become other types of cells. differentiation
Only the fertilized egg and the cells produced by the first few cell divisions of embryonic development are truly ___________. totipotent
After about four days of development, a human embryo forms into a blastocyst and the cells of the inner cell mass are said to be ____________. pluripotent
What are the two types of stem cells? embryonic and adult stem cells
Researchers have grown stem cells isolated from human embryos in culture and their experiments confirmed that __________ ______ _______ have the capacity to produce most cell types in the human body. embryonic stem cells
Adult stem cells of a given organ or tissue is ____________ and typically produces only the types of cells that are unique to that tissue. multipotent
_______ ________ research may lead to new ways to repair the cellular damage that results from heart attack, stroke, and spinal cord injuries. Stem cell
Most techniques for harvesting cause destruction of the _________. embryo
Government funding of ____________ ______ ______ research is an important political issue. Groups seeking to protect embryos oppose such research as unethical. embryonic stem cell
Some groups support ___________ _______ _____ research as essential to saving human lives and so view it as unethical to restrict the research. embryonic stem cell
Life in a cell is made possible through hundreds of chemical reactions and if these chemical reactions proceed too slowly, the activities of the cell would come to a ______. halt
Without _________, the reactions of the cell would proceed so slowly that they would be of no use to the cell, and the cell would die. enzymes
__________ __________ occur faster and at lower temperatures because enzymes lower the activation energy for that chemical reaction. Enzymatic reactions
__________ are never consumed or used up during the reaction so they can do their job over and over again. Enzymes
The enzyme has an active site with a unique 3-D shape into which its __________ must fit so enzymes are highly specific for just one substrate. substrate
Enzymes __________ both the forward and the reverse of the same reaction. catalyze
Since enzymes are unchanged by ___________ ____________, only a small amount of any particular enzyme may be present so many different enzymes are in a single cell. chemical reactions
Enzymes can be ___________ by temperatures and pH levels outside the optimal range for that particular enzyme. denatured
Many enzymes like __________ are found in both plant and animal tissues. catalase
What letters do enzymes almost always end in? -ase
Created by: VickieJ10
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