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Ch 13

Chapter 13: Food Preservation and safety

QuestionAnswer
yeast a type of unicellular, nonfilamentous fungi
Ultra-high temperature method a treatment in which milk is heated at 140 degree Celsius for 3 seconds to destroy harmful bacteria
Thermoduric referring to an organism that tolerates the heat of the pasteurization process
Sterile free from living microorganisms, spores or viruses
Shelf life the length of time that a commodity, such as food, may be stored without becoming unfit for use or consumption
Salmonellosis an infection caused by the Salmonella genus of bacteria
Psychrotrophis an organism that lives at cold temperature ranges of 0-30 degrees Celsius
Probiotics living microbes that help replenish or maintain the human microbiota of the gut
Pasteurization a heating process that destroys pathogenic bacteria in a fluid such as milk and lowers the overall number of bacteria in the fluid
Osmotic pressure the force that must be applied to a solution to inhibit the inward movement of water across a membrane
Osmosis the net movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration through a semipermeable membrane to a region of lower concentration
Organic acid a carbon-containing compound with acidic properties
Nonperishable referring to foods that are less likely to spoil
Mold a type of fungus that consists of chains of cells and appears as a fuzzy mass in culture
Microbiome a specific environment characterized by a distinctive microbial community and its collective genetic material
Microbial load the total number of bacteria and fungi in a given quantity of water or soil or on the surface of food
Manufacturer code a system used by manufacturers to identify products quickly
Lyophilization freeze drying
Lactic acid bacteria a group of gram-positive, acid-tolerant rods or cocci that are associated by their common metabolic and physiological characteristics
Intrinsic factor a characteristic of a food product that influences microbial growth
Highly perishable referring to foods that spoil easily
Gastroenteritis an inflammation of the stomach and the intestine, causing vomiting and diarrhea
Food spoilage the result of food deteriorating to the point that it is not edible to humans or its quality of edibility becomes reduced
Food poisoning caused by consuming foods that contain toxins
Extrinsic factor an environmental characteristic that influences the growth of food microbes
Expiration date the last date a product, such as food, should be used before it is considered spoiled
Ergotism a disease caused by the transfer of a toxin produced by the fungus Claviceps purpurea from rye grains to humans
Critical point control in the food processing industry, a place where the contamination of the food product could occur
Commercial sterilization a canning process to eliminate the most resistant bacterial spores
Coliform bacteria a gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped cell that ferments lactose to acid and gas and usually found in the human and animal intestine
Canning a food preservation method in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container
Blanching a process of putting food in boiling water for a few seconds to destroy enzymes
Aflatoxin a toxin produced by Aspergillus flavus that is cancer causing in vertebrates
Created by: drmicro