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Bio L2 Gene Expressn

NCEA Level 2 Biology Gene Expression AS 91159

TermDefinition
amino acids The building blocks of polypeptide chains (and therefore proteins). There are 20 different types.
anticodon A sequence of three bases on a tRNA molecule. It pairs with a specific codon on a strand of mRNA during translation.
base deletion The deletion of a base from the DNA sequence. Results in a frameshift mutation.
base insertion The insertion of a base into the DNA sequence. Results in a frameshift mutation.
base substitution When one nucleotide base is replaced with another of a different type.
carrier An individual who carries and is capable of passing on a genetic mutation.
catalytic protein A protein which functions to catalyse a reaction – i.e. an enzyme.
catalyst A substance which speeds up a chemical reaction. Enzymes are biological catalysts.
coding strand The DNA strand which is complementary to the template strand of DNA.
codon A sequence of three bases on the mRNA which codes for a particular amino acid during protein synthesis.
complementary base pair Two bases that pair together; cytosine and guanine; adenine and thymine (or uracil in RNA),.
cystic fibrosis A genetic condition in humans which affects transport proteins in cell membranes. Mucus production causes lung problems and other symptoms.
degeneracy The fact that certain different codons code for the same amino acid; e.g. GUU and GUC will both code for valine. This is because there are 64 different codons, but only 20 different amino acids.
frameshift When the insertion or deletion of a base in the DNA changes the way the sequence is read by the ribosome. All of the codons from this point on are affected. The amino acid sequence will be incorrect and the protein will not function.
gene A section of DNA that codes for the production of a particular protein.
gene expression The process in which information from a gene is used to make a functional protein.
gene mutation A change to a single base in the DNA sequence of an individual.
genome An organism's complete set of DNA, including all of its genes.
genotype The two specific alleles an organism has for a particular gene e.g. Bb or BB.
hydrogen bond The type of bond present between complementary bases i.e. between the two strands of DNA.
inheritance The transfer of genetic traits from one generation to the next.
metabolic pathway A series of enzyme-controlled reactions. The product of one reaction is used as the substrate for the next, until the final product is made.
metabolism All of the enzyme-controlled reactions in an organism.
missense mutation A mutation which changes one or more of the amino acids coded for. The protein’s function is likely to be affected.
monomer A unit which links with other monomers to make a polymer.
messenger RNA (mRNA) Carries the code for a polypeptide chain from DNA in the nucleus to a ribosome in the cytoplasm.
mutagen Any factor which causes changes to the DNA of an organism, increasing the chance of a mutation occurring.
mutation A sudden, permanent change in the DNA sequence of an individual.
nonsense mutation A mutation in which the changed sequence codes for the ‘STOP’ codon. Any protein produced will be incomplete, so is unlikely to function.
nucleotide The building block (monomer) that DNA and RNA are made of. Consists of a nitrogenous base linked to a sugar and a phosphate group.
peptide bond The type of bond between amino acids which make up a polypeptide chain / protein.
phenotype The observable physical characteristics of an organism.
polymer A long molecule made of many monomer units linked together
polypeptide A chain of amino acids linked together. One (or more) polypeptide chains folded in specific 3D shape forms a protein.
protein A molecule made up of many repeating units of amino acids, folded into a specific 3D shape.
protein synthesis The process in which amino acids are assembled into proteins based on the genetic information carried in the DNA.
purines The chemical family to which the bases adenine and guanine belong.
pyrimidines The chemical family to which the bases uracil, thymine and cytosine belong.
redundancy The fact that amino acids are coded for by more than one codon. This is because there are 64 different codons, but only 20 different amino acids.
ribosome The organelle where amino acids are assembled to build polypeptide chains (which fold to form proteins).
RNA Ribonucleic acid.
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) A type of RNA present in the ribosomes.
same sense mutation A mutation which does not change the amino acid(s) coded for. The protein should therefore function normally.
sickle cell disease A genetic condition in humans in which affects the haemoglobin protein, causing red blood cells to change shape.
silent mutation A mutation which has no effect on the phenotype.
structural protein A protein which provides structural support e.g. keratin in nails, hair, skin, etc.
substrate The specific substance to which a particular enzyme binds.
template strand The DNA strand which is used as a template for the production of a complementary strand of mRNA.
transcription The process in which an mRNA copy of a DNA sequence is made. The first step in protein synthesis; happens inside the nucleus.
translation The process of making a polypeptide chain (which forms a protein) using the mRNA code. Happens at the ribosome.
triplet A sequence of three nucleotides in the DNA. Codes for a specific amino acid.
transfer RNA (tRNA) A molecule which is responsible for bringing a specific type of amino acid to the ribosome during protein synthesis.
Created by: nztcowen