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Controlling Microbes

Ch 11: Controlling Microbes

QuestionAnswer
Alcohol an antiseptic that works by denaturing proteins, which inhibits the growth of many microorganisms
Aldehyde a chemical such as glutaraldehyde or formaldehyde that can be used as a chemical agent to kill or slow the growth of bacteria
Aminoglycoside an antibiotic that contains amino groups bonded to carbohydrate groups that inhibit protein synthesis
Antisepsis the use of chemical methods for eliminating or reducing the growth of microorganisms
Antiseptic a chemical used to reduce or kill pathogenic microorganisms on a living object
Autoclave an instrument used to sterilize microbiological materials by means of high temperature using steam under pressure
Biological safety cabinet a cabinet or hood used to prevent contamination of biological materials
Broad-spectrum antibiotic referring to an antimicrobial drug useful for treating many groups of microorganisms, including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
Denaturation a process caused by heat or pH in which proteins lose their function due to changes in their molecular structure
Desiccation a process through which things are made to be extremely dry by removing water
Disinfectant a chemical used to kill or inhibit pathogenic microorganisms on a lifeless object
Disinfection the process of killing or inhibiting the growth of pathogens
Filtration a mechanical method to remove microorganisms by passing a liquid or air through a filter
Flash pasteurization method a treatment in which milk is heated at 71.6 degrees Celsius for 15 seconds and then cooled rapidly to eliminate harmful bacteria
Halogen a chemical element whose atoms have seven electrons in their outer shell, includes iodine and chlorine
Heavy metal a chemical element often toxic to microorganisms; includes mercury, silver, gold, copper
High efficiency particle air filter a type of air filter that removes particles larger than 0.3 micrometers
Holding method pasteurization method that exposes liquids to 63 degrees Celsius for 30 minutes
Hydrogen peroxide an unstable liquid that readily decomposes in water and O2 gas
Ionizing radiation a type of radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays that causes the separation of atoms or a molecule into ions
Lyophilization a process in which food or other material is deep frozen, after which its liquid is drawn off by a vacuum; also called freeze drying
Osmosis the net movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration through a semipermeable membrane to a region of lower concentration
Pasteurization a heating process that destroys pathogenic bacteria in a liquid; lowers the overall number of bacteria in the fluid
Pasteurizing dose the amount of radiation used to eliminate pathogens
Penicillinase an enzyme produced by certain microorganisms that converts penicillin into penicilloic acid and thereby confers resistance to penicillin
Peroxide a compound containing oxygen-oxygen single bond
Phenol a chemical compound that has one or more hydroxyl groups attached to a benzene ring; derivatives are used for as an antiseptic or disinfectant
Semisynthetic referring to a chemical substance synthesized from natural and lab components used to treat disease
Sterilization the removal of all life forms, including endospores
Superbug a strain of bacterial species that has become resistant to multiple antibiotic drugs
Superinfection the overgrowth of susceptible strains by antibiotic resistant ones
Triclosan a phenol derivative incorporated as an antimicrobial agent into a wide variety of household products
Ultra-high temperature method a treatment in which milk is heated to 140 degrees Celsius for 3 seconds to destroy harmful bacteria
Created by: drmicro