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EPI Test 1


Epidemiology study of distribution and determinants of health related states
Health The absence of illness
What are the six dimensions of health? Physical, social, mental, emotional, spiritual, environmental
Core functions of public health Assessment, policy development, and assurance
Population Collection of individuals that share one or more observable characteristics
Distribution Study of frequency and pattern of health events
Frequency Number, and number in relation to the population
Pattern The health related state or event by person, place, and time characteristics
Determinants Search for causes and other factors for health related events
What are the health related states or events? Disease states (Cholera), Conditions associated with health (physical activity), events (injury_)
Scientific method in regards to epi The health problem, hypotheses, statistical testing, interpretation, and dissemination
Descriptive epidemiology Involves designs to study who, what, when, and where
Analytic epi Studies why and how health related events occur. Trying to find patterns and solve problems
Activities performed in epi Identifying risk factors, describing disease history, where the health problem is the greatest, monitoring diseases over time, evaluating programs
Epi information Public health assessment, causes of disease, completing clinical picture, program. Eveluation
What do you measure in program evaluation? Efficacy and effectiveness
Efficacy ability of a program to produce a desired effect among those who participate compared to those who do not participate
Effectiveness Ability of a program to produce benefits among those who are offered the program
Questions that need epi Diagnosis, causes, treatment, prognosis, health promotion and practice, health and disease surveillance, health inequalities
Epidemic Health related state or event in a defined population above the expected in a given period of time (example: really bad flu season)
Endemic Persistant, usual, expected health event in a defined population over a given period of time (example: AIDS/Malaria)
Pandemic An epidemic that crosses borders including to other countries and continents
Common source Point, intermittent, and continuous
What happens when you remove the common source? Epidemic rapidly decreases because source of outbreak was contained
Propagated source Spread from person to person through direct or indirect routes. These can happen more slowly
Mixed epidemics A mix of the previous two. Can occur when a common source outbreak is followed by a person to person outbreak.
Direct transmission Person to person typically
Indirect methods Vehicle borne, or vector borne
Example of direct transmission STDs
Example of vehicle borne disease HIV spread through dirty needles
Ex of vector borne Malaria spread through mosquitoes
Case definition Standard set of criteria. Makes sure that the disease is consistently diagnosed. They include: person, place, time, clinical criteria
Case Person who has been diagnosed with having a disease or disorder
Primary case First disease case in the population
Index case First disease brought to the attention of the epidemiologist
Secondary case Those who become infected after its been introduced and who gets infected from the primary case
Suspect An individual who has all the signs and symptoms of a disease but have not been diagnosed
Confirmed All criteria met and have confirmed to have disease
Three sides to the epi triangle for infectious disease Environment, infectious agent, and host
Fomites Objects that may harbor a disease agent such as clothing, towels, utensils, needles
Vector An invertebrate animal capable of transmitting the infectious disease
Reservior The habitat on which an infectious agent lives, grows, multiplies, and depends on for its survival in nature. Ex: humans, animals, food, feces
Zoonosis When an animal transmits a disease to the human. (Rabies)
Carrier A carrier contains, spreads, or harbors the infectious organism (Typhoid Mary)
Active carrier Individual has been exposed and is harboring pathogen
Convalescent carrier Individual still in recovery from disease who is still infectious
Healthy carrier Exposed to pathogen but has no symptoms
Incubatory carrier Exposed to pathogen and is at beginning steps of disease, showing symptoms, and is infectious
Intermittent carrier Individual in recovery from disease who is still infectious in different places or time intervals
Epi triangle for chronic diseases Environment, group/population, and causative factors.
Chain of infection Mode of transmission, portal of entry, susceptible host, infectious agent, reservoir, portal of exit
Hippocrates First epidemiologist, ascribed to atomic theory, observed diseases in different places, introduced terms such as epidemic and endemic.
Thomas Syndeham First really to study observation- relied on “unorthodox treatments” such as fresh air and healthy diet
James Lind Did experimental treatments for scurvy on sailors, used clinical observation
Benjamin Jesty One of the first in western civilization to study effects of smallpox and cowpox. Observations from milkmaids.
Edward Jenner Credited for laying the groundwork for vaccination. Actually gave his milkmaid cowpox and she did not catch the disease. Used VARIOLATION
Ignaz Semmelweis Credited with advancements in hand washing because of observations of women dying after routine pelvic exams given by medical students who did not wash their hands.
John Snow Cholera outbreak epidemiologist in London. Used both descriptive and analytical.
Louis Pasteur Important figure in germ theory. Investigated how humans contracted anthrax. And discovered a vaccine for it too.
Robert Koch Worked with Pasteur to establish germ theory. First to photograph microbes. Identified spore stage of microorganisms.
Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek First to use the microscope to study disease. Discovered “animalcules” which were what he saw under the microscope. Led to development of chemistry and histology.
John Gaunt Used the “bills of mortality” in London- age, sex, who died, etc. developed life tables Divided them into acute and chronic death.
William Farr Noted as first to extensively use vital statistics. Promoted concept of multi-factorial etiology.
Bernadino Ramazzini Noted the link between occupational hygiene and health. Workers were getting diseases as a direct cause of work exposure.
Florence nightingale British nurse who helped develop changes in hygiene. Monitored rates to prove that hygiene affected death. Developed applied statistics
Typhoid mary Had no symptoms, gave it to other people. Confined and isolated
T.K. Takaki Noted for recognizing the importance of vitamins. Eradicated beriberi from Japanese navy.
Lemuel Shattuck Published first report on sanitation and public health problems. Set forth the importance of establishing health boards and organizing the effort to collect data
Edgar Sydenstricker Suggested morbidity statistics be classified into 5 general groups: Communicable diseases, hospital and clinical records, insurance and establishment of school illness records, illness surveys, records of incidence in a population
Jane Lane-Claypon Recognized the importance of breastfeeding, advocate of prenatal services. Recognized factors associated with breast cancer.
Wade Hampton Frost Father of modern epidemiology, investigated flu pandemic, advanced many different parts of epidemiology
Framingham study Prospective cohort study on cardiovascular disease. Has given us extremely helpful
Epi of smoking and lung cancer Case-control studies done in the 50s to establish a link. Also cohort studies done. Yeah
Modern epi people Olli Miettinen, Austin Bradford Hill, Joseph Fleiss
What is disease? Interruption, cessation, or disorder of body functions, systems, or organs
Etiology Science and study of the causes of disease and their mode of operation.
Communicability Ability to transfer disease- HIV, cholera, influenza
Horizontal transmission Transmission of infectious agents from person to person (influenza)
Vertical transmission Transmission of offspring from parents. Through sperm, placenta, milk, or vaginal fluid.
Infectious disease Disease caused by microorganism
Pathogen Organisms such as prions, bacteria, fungi, that are capable of producing diseases.
Invasiveness The ability to get into a susceptible host and cause disease
Virulence The disease evoking power of a pathogen
Toxins Term used to describe a poisonous substance produced by a living organism
Viability The capacity of a pathogen or agent to survive outside the host and to exist or thrive in the environment.
Incubation period Period of time from exposure to symptoms
Latency period For chronic diseases. Typically harder to identify since the causes are lifestyle choices that cause the disease.
Stages of disease process Susceptibility, pre-symptomatic disease, clinical disease, and recovery, disability or death.
Congenital and hereditary diseases Familial tendencies, born with the disease. Ex: Down syndrome, hemophilia, congenital heart defects
Allergies and inflammatory diseases Body reacting to an invasion of or injury by a foreign object or substance
Degenerative diseases Deterioration of body systems, functions. EX: Alzheimer’s, osteoporosis, arthritis
Metabolic diseases Cause dysfunction of certain organs or physiological processes. Many are hereditary. Works with how cells regulate and conversion of food to energy. EX: Tay-Sachs
Common modes of entry into the body of infectious disease agents Respiratory, organ, intravenous, urinary, gastrointestinal, transplacental
Zoonotic disease An infectious organism in vertebrate animals that can be transmitted to humans through direct contact, a fomite, or vector.
Notifiable diseases Considerable public health importance because they are serious.
Active immunity The body produces its own antibiotics, this can occur through vaccine or already having the disease
Passive immunity Acquired through transplacental transfer of mothers immunity to child.
Herd immunity Based on the notion that if many people are protected from a disease that an epidemic will not occur.
Isolation Applies to a person who are known to be ill with a contagious disease
Quarantine Applies to a person who may have been exposed but may or may not have become ill.
Created by: rebeccaromanek



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