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Gifted Bio Test😥

What carries the chemical energy for most cell processes? ATP
What do carbon based molecules in food store? Chemical energy
What are the most important energy sources in food? Carbohydrates and lipids
Does energy come directly from food? No
What is ATP? A molecule that transfers energy from the breakdown of food molecules to cell processes.
What do cells use ATP for? Building molecules and moving materials by active transport
When is energy released by ATP? When a phosphate group is removed from the molecule
How many phosphate groups does ATP have? Three
What is ADP? A lower energy molecule that can be converted into ATP by the addition of a phosphate group
What are calories? Measures of energy
How many molecules of ATP does the breakdown of glucose yield? 36
Which molecule stores the most energy? Lipids
Do all organisms need sunlight and photosynthesis as a source of energy? No
What is chemosynthesis? A process by which some organisms use chemical energy instead of light energy to make energy storing carbon based molecules.
What is a producer? Organisms that produce the source of chemical energy for themselves and other animals
What is photosynthesis? A process that captures energy from sunlight to make sugars that store chemical energy.
What kind of light do plants absorb for photosynthesis? Visible light
What is chlorophyll? A molecule in chloroplast that absorb some of the energy in visible light and makes the plants green
Where does photosynthesis in plants occur? In the chloroplast
What are the two main parts of chloroplasts needed for photosynthesis? The grana and the stroma
What are grana? Stacks of coin shaped, membrane enclosed compartments called thylakoids
What is found inside of thylakoids? Chlorophyll, proteins, and other light absorbing molecules
What is stroma? The fluid that surrounds the grana inside a chloroplast
What is the equation for photosynthesis? 6CO2+6H2O => C6H12O6+6O2
Why do plants need simple sugars? To build starch and cellulose molecules
During the light dependent reactions, what is energy captured and transferred in the thylakoids membrane by? Photosystems
What are the main functions of the light dependent reactions? To capture and transfer energy
What is the energy from elections used for? To make molecules that act as energy carriers or ATP and NADPH
Which molecules go on from the light dependent reactions to the later stages of photosynthesis? ATP and NADPH
What is cellular respiration? A process releases chemical energy from sugars and other carbon based molecules to make ATP when oxygen is present
What is an aerobic process? Oxygen needs to take place
Is cellular respiration an aerobic process? Yes
What is glycolysis? A process that splits two three-carbon molecules s makes two molecules of ATP.
Is glycolysis an anaerobic process? Yes
What is an anaerobic process? A process that doesn't require oxygen
What two parts in mitochondria are involved in cellular respiration? The matrix and the inner mitochondrial membrane
What are the two cycles in cellular respiration? Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport
What is the Krebs Cycle? A cycle that produces molecules that carry energy to the second part of cellular respiration
How many ATP molecules do Glycolysis make? 2
How many ATP molecules do cellular respiration make? 34-36
Where does glycolysis take place? The cytoplasm
What are the products of glycolysis? Pyruvate and the electron carrier NADH
What happens when oxygen is not there to pick up electrons? The production of ATP without oxygen continues through the anaerobic processes of glycolysis and fermentation
What is fermentation? It doesn't make ATP but allows glycolysis to continue. It removes electrons from NADH molecules and recycles NAD+ molecules for glycolysis.
What would happen if NAD+ didn't pick up high energy electrons from the splitting of glucose? Glycolysis would stop
What is lactic acid? C3H6O3 is what causes your muscles to burn during hard exercises
What is the role of fermentation? To provide glycolysis with a steady supply of NAD+
Created by: jaslynhillery13
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