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IGHS Winkels

Biology Chapter 4

TermDefinition
Weather the day-to-day condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place
Climate the average, year-to-year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region
Greenhouse effect the natural situation in which heat is retained by the layer of greenhouse gases
Polar Zones cold areas(around the N & S poles) where the sun's rays strike Earth at a very low angle
Temperate Zones sit between the polar zones and the tropics
Tropical Zone or tropics, is near the equator. It receives direct or nearly direct sunlight year-round.
Biotic factors the biological influences on organisms within an ecosystem
Abiotic factors physical, or nonliving, factors that shape ecosystems
Habitat the area where an organism lives
Niche is the full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and uses those conditions
Resource refers to any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food, or space
Competitive Exclusion Principle no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
Predation an interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism
Symbiosis any relationship in which two species live closely together
Mutualism both species benefit from the relationship(ants protect aphids which produce a sweet liquid that the ants drink)
Commensalism one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped or hurt (barnacles attached to a whale)
Parasitism one organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it (ticks)
Ecological succession the series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time
Primary succession on land, succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists
Pioneer species the first species to populate an area
Secondary succession occurs after wildfires burn woodlands and when land cleared for farming is abandoned
Biome a complex of terrestrial communites that cover a large area and is characterized by certain soil and climate conditions, animals and plants
Tolerance ability to survive and reproduce under conditions that differ from their optimal conditions
Microclimate the climate in a small area that differs from the climate around it
Canopy the leafy tops of tall trees form a dense covering (tropical rain forest)
Understory a second layer of shorter trees and vines(tropical rain forest)
Deciduous a tree that sheds its leaves during a particular season each year
Coniferous trees, or conifers, produce seed-bearing cones, and most have leaves shaped like needles
Humus a material formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter that makes soil fertile
Taiga also called Boreal forests are dense evergreen forests of coniferous trees
Permafrost a layer of permanently frozen subsoil (Tundra)
Plankton tiny, free-floating organisms that live in both freshwater and saltwater environments
Phytoplankton unicellular algae that form the base of many aquatic food webs
Zooplankton planktonic animals that feed on phytoplankton
Wetland an ecosystem in which water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface of the soil for at least part of the year
Estuaries are wetlands formed where rivers meet the sea
Detritus is made up of tiny pieces of organic material that provide food for organisms at the base of the estuary's food web
Salt marshes temperate-zone estuaries dominated by salt-tolerant grasses above the low-tide line, and by seagrass under water
Mangrove Swamps coastal wetlands that are widespread across tropical regions, including southern Florida and Hawaii
Photic zone the well-lit upper layer of the ocean
Aphotic zone the layer below the photic zone which is permanently dark (ocean)
Zonation the prominent horizontal banding of organisms that live in a particular habitat
Coastal ocean extends from the low-tide mark to the outer edge of the continental shelf
Kelp forests underwater forests of a giant brown alga that can grow as much as 50 centimeters a day
Coral reefs coral animals whose hard, calcium carbonate skeletons make up their primary structure
Benthos organisms that live attached to, or near the bottom of the ocean, such as sea stars, anemones, and marine worms
Created by: Winkels