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PCS Liv Env

Cell Division

TermDefinition
asexual reproduction one parent; 2 daughter cells genetically identical to parent
binary fission parent organism divides into 2 EQUAL parts ex. bacteria, ameba
budding parent organism divides into 2 UNEQUAL parts ex. yeast, hydra
spore formation specialized cells which will be released to germinate and grow into new ex. mold
regeneration organism can grow from a part/section ex. starfish, some worms
How does an organism increase in size? - having each cell enlarge - increasing the number of cells
Can cells increase in size indefinitely? No
Why can't cells increase in size indefinitely? - DNA overload (more demand on DNA) - the size gets too great for cell membrane - trouble moving enough food/oxygen in and waste out - uses up food and oxygen quickly
Cell Division (mitotic phase) process by which a cell divides into 2 daughter cells
What happens when a cell divides? each daughter cell gets its own copy of the parent's cell DNA
chromatid 2 identical DNA strands
centromere the pace where the chromatids are connected
What are the stages of the cell cycle? Mitosis, G1 phase, DNA synthesis, G2 phase
What is the cell cycle? series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
Mitosis when the nucleus divides to form 2 nuclei
What are the phases of mitosis? prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
prophase 1st phase; the chromosomes appear condensed and the nuclear envelope is not apparent
metaphase 2nd phase; chromosomes are lined up in the center; spindle fibers are attached to the chromosome Hint: Metaphase = M (middle)
anaphase 3rd phase; chromosomes have separated and are moving toward the poles HINT: Anaphase = A (apart)
telophase 4th phase; chromosomes are at the poles; nuclear envelope is reforming
cytokinesis cell membrane pinches together to form 2 cells. In plants, the cell plate becomes the cell wall
When will a cell stop growing? when the cell comes into contact with other cells
cyclins proteins that control the timing of the cell cycle
cancer when the body doesn't respond to the regulatory signals; masses of cells called tumors
tumors masses of cancer cells
Created by: Ms.Sala