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Eco Evo Exam2(Fig.7)

Examples

QuestionAnswer
Most individuals express an intermediate trait value for height, whereas only a few individuals, such as professional basketball players and jockeys, express extreme trait values. This is an example of what? Frequency distribution of polygenic traits
True or false. Beak size, for example- in the medium ground finch, has a genetic basis that is passed from parents to offspring, and so as the average beak size of parents increased, the beak size of offspring increased. This was evolution in action. True.
In snapdragons the red and white flowers are _______ genotypes. The pink flower gets its color from one red gene and one white gene. This is an example of _________. Homozygous; codominance
At the Seneca Army Depot in western New York State, a mutation for white hair appeared in the 1940's. The white phenotype in deer now composes about 25% of the population. This is an example of what? Evolution by mutation
Mexican cavefish populations that live in surface streams have large eyes and dark pigmentation, whereas populations that live in caves have small eyes and reduced pigmentation. These changes in pigmentation represent what? Evolution by genetic drift
The greater prairie chicken population in Illinois declined from 12 million to 72. The number of alleles is high in neighboring states that have large populations. The population of Illinois has a lower number of alleles. This is an example of what? Evolution by the bottleneck effect
Water hyacinth is native to South American but has been introduced around the world. They are thought to have a low number of founders and are represented by a single genotype. This is an example of what? Evolution by the founder effect
In the sociable weaver bird, body size has a normal distribution. Birds with intermediate body sizes experience high survival while brids with low/high body sizes have low survival. This selection for intermediate phenotypes is an example of what? Stabilizing selection
When one extreme phenotype is selected against phenotypes of the other extreme, for example beak sizes in offspring of medium ground finches shifted to an average of 8.9 mmm, but after a drought, the average was 9.7 mm, this is an example of what? Directional selection
Spadefoot toad tadpoles can have specialized mouthparts for carnivory and cannibalism, omnivory, or an intermediate phenotype. The omnivores/carnivores experience high survival while the intermediates experience low survival. This is an example of what? Disruptive selection
Beginning with domesticated individuals of the gray wolf, humans have created a wide diversity of dog breeds through the process of....? Artificial selection
Over the years, plant breeders have produced a variety of common vegetables through artificially selecting traits of the wild mustard. This is an example of...? Artificial selection
The amphipod, a tiny crustacean, produces an abundance of offspring that vary in size. Predatory fish prefer to eat the largest amphipods and this causes selection for small body size. This selection is called what? Natural selection by predators on prey.
When researchers placed both dark and light moth phenotypes on trees in polluted and unpolluted woods, fewer light-colored moths were consumed by birds on unpolluted trees but fewer dark moths were consumed on polluted trees. This is an example of what? Industrial melanism
As industries in Kirby, England, reduced that amount of sulfur dioxide pollution, the color of the trees became lighter. After a decade of declining pollution, the frequency of the dark form of the peppered moth began to decline rapidly. This represents? Industrial melanism
By looking for similarity in phenotypes and DNA, scientists can develop hypotheses about the relatedness of different groups of organisms. What is this hypothesis called? Phylogenetic tree
Darwin's finches and cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika are two examples of speciation. Which types of speciation do they represent? Finches, allopatric speciation; fishes, sympatric speciation
When geographic barriers divide populations, each evolves independently. Over time, the two populations can become so different that they are not able to interbreed. At this point they have become two distinct species. This is an example of...? Allopatric speciation
A single ancestor species from the South American mainland has evolved into 14 different species of finches on the Galapagos Islands. This is an example of...? Allopatric speciation
More than 200 species of cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika have evolved from a single ancestor. This is an example of...? Sympatric speciation
The Tremblay's salamander is an all-female, triploid species that arose trough sympatric speciaton from the mating of the blue-spotted salamander and the Jefferson salamander. This is an example of what? Polyploidy
Starting with a diploid species of wheat, plant breeders have bred new species that contain four or six sets of chromosomes. This is an example of what? Polyploidy
Treehoppers are a group of insects that possess distinctive horns above their bodies. New research suggests that the horns are a novel modification of ancestral wings. This is an example of..? The evolution of key innovations.
The evolution of TB resistance is an excellent example of why we need to understand the process of what? Evolution
The four random processes that cause evolution are.... 1. mutation 2. genetic drift 3. bottleneck effects 4. founder effects
The three types of selection are.... 1. stabilizing 2. directional 3. disruptive
What equation is used to describe how much a population will respond to selection in the next generation? R = S x h^2 R is response to selection = standard deviations greater that that of parent's generation S is strength of selection = standard deviations above the population mean h^2 is heritability
Created by: BriawnaW