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Eco Evo Exam 2 (c.7)


Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) A molecule composed of two strands of nucleotides that are wound together into a shape known as a double helix.
Chromosomes Compact structures consisting of long strands of DNA that are would around proteins.
Alleles Different forms of a particular gene.
Polygenic When a single trait is affected by several genes.
Pleiotropy When a single gene affects multiple traits.
Epistasis When the expression of one gene is controlled by another gene.
Heterozygous When an individual has two different alleles of a particular gene.
Homozygous When an individual has two identical alleles of a particular gene.
Codominant When two alleles both contribute to the phenotype.
Dominant An allele that masks the expression of the other allele.
Recessive An allele whose expression is masked by the presence of another allele.
Gene pool The collection of alleles from all individuals in a population.
Random assortment The process of making haploid gametes in which the combination of alleles that are placed into a given gamete could be any combination of those possessed by the diploid parent.
Mutation A random change in the sequence of nucleotides in regions of DNA that either comprise a gene or control the expression of a gene.
Recombination The reshuffling of genes that can occur as DNA is copied during meiosis and chromosomes exchange genetic material.
Genetic drift A process that occurs when genetic variation is lost because of random variation in mating, mortality, fecundity, and inheritance.
Bottleneck effect A reduction of genetic diversity in a population due to a large reduction in population size.
Founder effect When a small number of individuals leave a large population to colonize a new area and bring with them only a small amount of genetic variation.
Selection The process by which certain phenotypes are favored to survive and reproduce over other phenotypes.
Stabilizing selection When individuals with intermediate phenotypes have higher survival and reproductive success than those with extreme phenotypes.
Directional selection When individuals with an extreme phenotype experience higher fitness than the average phenotype of the population.
Disruptive selection When individuals with either extreme phenotype experience higher fitness than individuals with an intermediate phenotype.
Microevolution The evolution of populations.
Artificial selection Selection in which humans decide which individuals will breed and the breeding is done with a preconceived goal for the traits of the population.
Industrial melanism A phenomenon in which industrial activities cause habitats to become darker due to pollution and, as a result, individuals possessing darker phenotypes are favored by selection.
Macroevolution Evolution at higher levels of organization including species, genera, families, orders, and phyla.
Speciation The evolution of new species.
Phylogenetic trees Hypothesized patterns of relatedness among different groups such as populations, species, or genera.
Allopatric speciation The evolution of new species through the process of geographic isolation.
Sympatric speciation The evolution of new species without geographic isolation.
Strength of selection The difference between the mean of the phenotypic distribution before selection and the mean after selection, measured in units of standard deviations.
Heritability The proportion of the total phenotypic variation that is caused by genetic variation.
Created by: BriawnaW