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Ecology Exam 2

Explain Life History Characteristics relating to organism growth, development. 1. age, size at sexual maturity 2. amount and timing of reproduction 3. survival and mortality rates.
explain patterns and phenotypic plasticity vary among species (due to genetic variation or environmental conditions ). 1 G produces multiple Ps due to environmental conditions.
Name two modes of reproduction asexual: simple cell division (pros and protists) parthenogenesis: asexual reproduction in which females produce offspring with no male aid.
Name adv and disdain of sexual reproduction 1. increased genetic variation 2. half genome contributed to next generation (pop rate slower)
What are the trade offs limited E or resource to 1 function at expense of another.
What are the 2 methods of reproduction. R selection ( growth rate) K selection (carrying capacity)
What is semelparous? What is Iteroparous Reproduce only once Reproduce multiple times
Describe R-selection 1.Do better in recently disturbed environments 2. live fast die young 3. rapid development 4. low parental investment 5. high fecundity 6. short life span 7. early maturation
Describe K-selection 1. slow and steady 2. longer lived 3. develop slower 4. late maturation 5. low reproduction rates 6. high offspring investment 7. do well in stable competitive environments
Explain offspring Development (altricial) born undeveloped state requires care adv: continue brain growth and greater congitive abilities, reach independence sooner. dis: high food demands, extends vulnerability period.
Explain offspring Development (precocial) born in relatively mobile state and can feed itself adv: slower growth, less food demand, rapid departure from home, minimize vulnerable period. Dis: can increase juvenile mortality, smaller adult brain
Explain Natal-Habitat biased dispersal dispersing indiv. will be most successful in environments similar to data habitat. Influenced by: phenotype, experienced gained from natal habitat. adv: increase genetic diversity, reduce competition against relatives, colonization. dis: unfamiliarity w
Explain Niche Shift Gradual morpholical change of an organism. Space that are needed for organisms growth, survival and ability to reproduced.
What is ethology? What is behavioral ecology? Study of behavior of animals Study of how behavior influences an organisms survival report and ultimately its evolution. (to evolve- must be behavioral variation must be heritable must improve fitness)
What are the strategies to study? 1. Proximate causation: how does behavior occur 2. Ultimate causation: why does it occur
What are the types of Behavior? 1. Fixed Action Patterns 2. Migration 3. Imprinting 4. Mechano Sensory Comm.
Explain Fixed Action Patterns. Innate behaviors that don't vary and is carried to completion, not learned but instinct.
Explain Migration Generally inherited or learned through environment or others.
Explain Imprinting Explain Mechano Sensory Comm exposed to certain stimuli that have profound effect on their behavior message conveyed by touch when visual cues aren't possible.
What is a selfish herd? a group formation with dominant individuals on the inside of the group.
Benefits and costs of social gathering Finding food, huddle for warmth, predator detection and avoidance Competition for resources, increase pathogen transmission
Fusion vs Fission animals stay together in groups animals are primarily alone
What is ecological footprint? total area of productive ecosystems required to support a pop. Carrying capacity depends on the amount of resources used by each person.
What is pop dynamics the ways in which pops change in abundance overtime
what is pop fluctuation in all pops # rise and fall overtime
describe pop outbreak # of individuals increase rapidly
explain delayed density dependence delays on the effect that density has on pop size , occurrence of fluctuation depends on the values of r and Tau
What is an extinction vortex small pop experience increased severity of factors that limit survival and reproduction. as pop declines the time elapses before extinction occurs becomes rapidly smaller and smaller
Explain demographic stochasticity chance events affect survival and reproduction of individual
Explain environmental stochasticity Unpredictable random changes in environmental conditions (influences growth rate of the pop) more likely to cause extinction when pop is small
What is the Allee effect at low densities, indiv have trouble finding mates
Describe metapops group of specially isolated pop (linked by dispersal of indiv or gametes.
What 4 assumptions does the levies models make 1. infinite # of identical habitat patches 2. all patches have an equal chance of receiving colonists 3. equal chance of extinction 4. once a patch is colonized, its pop increases to carrying capacity faster than colonization and extinction rates
Explain General features of competition whether indirect or direct can limit the distributions and abundances of competing species
Explain exploitation competition compete indirectly: individuals reduce the availability of a resource as they use it
Explain interference competition compete directly: individuals may preform antagonistic actions
Explain Allelopathy plants of one species releases toxins that harm others.
Explain competitive exclusion species most likely to co-exist when resources use differently
What is the competitive exclusion principle 2 species that use a limiting resource in the same way can't coexists
Explain resource partitioning various species use the same limiting resource but in diff ways 1. habitat use 2. time of activity 3. access of resource
Explain source link dynamics a local surplus from high quality habitats (source) and local deficit occurs in habitats of poor quality (sink)
Explain ecological trap low quality resource that animals perceive as high quality acts as a pop sink
Explain perceptual trap high quality resource that animals perceive as low quality acts as a pop sink. 1. red fitness 2. certain quality indicator cues may not be present
Explain habitat fragmentation subdivided into isolated patches, resulting in a metope structure. (decrease patch size equals more isolated pop equals decrease colonization and increase extinction rate. if e/c becomes > 1 the metapop will go extinct
what is defragmentation: able to reconnect habitats
What are the 2 important features of metapop 1. isolation by distance: distance is the primary factor influencing colonization success 2. path size: influences likelyhood of colonization
What is rescue effect sufficient rates of immigration that prevent pop extinction
what is bottom up controlled increased primary production results in greater production at all trophic levels
what is top-down top predators control abundance of other species
Explain Specialist thrives only on narrow range of conditions (limit diet)
Explain Generalist wide variety of conditions (thrives)
Explain search image animals may form this of the most common prey type and orient toward that prey. Learning enables them to become increasingly efficient at capturing most common prey.
What are the 5 adaptions to escape being eaten 1. physical defense 2. warning/ aposematic coloration 3. crypsis 4. mimicry 5. behavior
Explain physical defense (3) 1. large size 2. rapid movement 3. body armor
name 4 plant defense 1. masting- production of seed at long intervals by a pop of plants 2. compensation: removal of plant tissue stimulates new growth 3. induced defense: produced in response to herbivore attack. 4. secondary compounds: toxic chemical to reduce herbivory.
name 3 factors that influence susceptibility 1. host age 2. a latent period 3. vertical transmission
Explain virulence and coevolution degree of damaged caused to host pops of interacting species evolve together due to selection imposed by on another.
how do parasites cause communities to change reduce survival of repro of host. reduce size of pop and alters outcomes of species interactions can bring host pop to extinction and reduce their geographic ranges
Created by: 1506551322767779



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