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quarter 1 bio test

don't kys :)

what does it mean if a molecule is polar? It means the electrons are being shared unevenly creating a partial charge
what does it mean if a molecule is nonpolar? It means the electrons are being shared evenly creating a neutral molecule with no charge.
name the 6 key elements that make up the majority of living tissues (CHNOPS) carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, sulfur
List the 4 major macromolecules found in cells proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids
what macromolecule is the workhorse of the body and it's jobs are transportation, movement, structure and immunity? proteins
what macromolecule contains the genetic code that is passed down to offspring via reproduction? nucleic acids
which macromolecule is long term energy storage used to keep bodies warm and are major parts of the cell membrane? lipids
which macromolecule is short term energy that is made by plants and other organisms through phosphorous? carbohydrates
in an atom, what is the valence shell? the outer ring of electrons
how do you know how many electrons to draw in the atom? the number of protons
describe a covalent bond sharing electrons between two or more atoms to form a molecule
describe a hydrogen bond when a hydrogen atom is part of a polar covalent bond, it's partial positive charge allows it to share attractions with other electronegative atoms such as oxygen or nitrogen. Therefore it it not really a bond it is a weak attraction
what is the purpose of a compound light microscope? and how does it work? it's to magnify an object that is too small to see with the naked eye. it works by shining a light through an object and you can look through the tree different lenses to get the best focus: scanner (40x) low (100x) and high (400x)
how do you calculate the power of the magnification in each lense? magnification of the eyepiece x the magnification of the objective
what is 2 major differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? eukaryotes have a nucleus and prokaryotes do not, but prokaryotes have a tail like part called a flagellum and eukaryotes do not.
what are 4 things that eukaryotes and prokaryotes have in common? chromosomes, ribosomes, plasma membrane, proteins
cell theory 1. all organisms are made up of one or more cells 2. cells are the building blocks of life 3. all cells are made from existing cells
what is the general function of the phospholipid bilayer? To control the molecules that enter and leave the cell
what is the cell membrane? a boundary between the cell and it's surroundings
how do the heads and tails in a phospholipid bilayer differ? The heads are hydrophilic and polar and they have a negative charge because of the phosphate groups. The tails are hydrophobic and nonpolar and they have no charge, they are also fatty acids.
how do molecules pass through the bilayer? Nonpolar molecules can go through the hydrophobic interior because they do n't have a charge. small polar molecules can also go through the interior because of their size. large polar molecules can only go through integral proteins
what is one job of the phospholipid bilayer? allows certain cells to pass through depending on size and charge
what is another job of the phospholipid bilayer? the carbohydrates on the bilayer (chains of sugar) are used as identification which tells the cells which cells need to go where and identifies cells that are foreign and need to leave
functions of nucleus DNA synthesis, RNA synthesis, assembly of ribosomes, genetic control center
functions of ribosomes reads RNA, joins amino acids to form polypeptide chain
functions of cytoplasm gives cell shape, keeps organelles in place
functions of chloroplasts conversion of light energy to chemical energy of sugars
functions of mitochondria produce energy through cellular respiration to regulate metabolism
Created by: cosettegiroux
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