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Chapter 7

QuestionAnswer
What is energy? The capacity to do work
What is work? The change in state or motion of matter/object
In regards to cells what do we call work? Metabolism
What are the two units that energy is measured in? Kilojoules and Kilocalories
What type of energy does kilojoules measure? Energy
What type of energy does kilocalories measure? Thermal energy, or heat energy
Can heat energy do cell work? Why or why not? No, because a cell is too small to have regions the differ in temperature. This is why the most preferable unit is the kilojoule
What is kinetic energy? The energy of motion when work is performed, the energy possessed by a moving object
What is potential energy? The capacity to do work as a result of position or state, also known as stored energy
What is the energy that is stored in bonds called? Bond energy
Is chemical energy a form of potential or kinetic energy? Potential energy stored in bonds
What energy transformations are occurring when an archer draws the bow? The potential chemical energy released by cellular respiration is converted to kinetic energy in the muscles, which do the work of drawing the bow.
What is thermodynamics? The study of energy and its transformations. It studies both closed and open systems. This includes rocks, machines, cells.
Changes in heat may or may not cause changes in _________________________. Temperature
What is temperature? The average motion of a group particles or molecules.
How would you describe a closed system? A system that does not exchange energy with its surroundings
How would you describe an open system? A system that exchanges energy with its surroundings
Biological systems are __________________ systems. Open
What does the first law of thermodynamics state? Energy can neither be created or destroyed
Can energy be transferred or converted from one form to another? Yes
True or false: The total mass-energy that was present when the universe formed is the same amount of energy today. True
True or false: The energy of any system plus its surrounding is constant True
True or false: A system may absorb energy from its surroundings or may give up some energy to its surroundings, but the total energy content of that system plus its surroundings is always the same. True
If organisms cannot create the energy they need to live, how must they get it? They must capture energy from the environment and transform it to a form that can be used for biological work
What does the second law of thermodynamics state? When energy is convert4ed form one form to another, some usable energy, energy available to do work is converted into heat that disperses into the surroundings
What is heat? The kinetic energy of randomly moving particles
How is the second law of thermodynamics consistent with the first law of thermodynamics? It is consistent because the total amount of energy in the universe is to decreasing with time, However, the total amount of energy to do work in the universe decreases over time.
What is entropy? The measure of disorder or randomness
Organized, usable energy has a ________________ entropy. Low
Disorganized energy, such as heat, has a _______________ entropy. High
Entropy in the universe is constantly ___________________. Increasing
Created by: eve_garcia