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Eco Evo Exam 2


Social behaviors Interactions with members of one's own species, including mates, offspring, other relatives, and unrelated individuals.
Dilution effect The reduced, or diluted, probability of predation to a single animal when it is in a group.
Lek The location of an animal aggregation to put on a display to attract the opposite sex.
Territory Any area defended by one or more individuals against the intrusion of others.
Dominance hierarchy A social ranking among individuals in a group, typically determined through contests such as fighting or other contests of strength or skill.
Donor The individual who directs a behavior toward another individual as part of a social interaction.
Recipient The individual who receives the behavior of a donor in a social interaction.
Cooperation When the donor and the recipient of a social behavior both experience increased fitness from an interaction.
Selfishness When the donor of a social behavior experiences increased fitness and the recipient experiences decreased fitness.
Spitefulness When a social interaction reduces the fitness of both donor and recipient.
Altruism A social interaction that increases the fitness of the recipient and decreases the fitness of the donor.
Direct fitness The fitness that an individual gains by passing on copies of its genes to its offspring.
Indirect fitness The fitness that an individual gains by helping relatives pass on copies of their genes.
Inclusive fitness The sum of direct fitness and indirect fitness.
Direct selection Selection that favors direct fitness.
Coefficient of relatedness The numerical probability of an individual and its relatives carrying copies of the same genes form a recent common ancestor.
Eusocial A type of social animal in which individuals live in large groups with overlapping generations, cooperation in nest building and brood care, and reproductive dominance by one or a few individuals.
Caste Individuals within a social group sharing a specialized form of behavior.
Haplodiploid A sex-determination system in which one sex is haploid and the other sex is diploid.
Queen The dominant, egg-laying female in eusocial insect societies.
Life history The scheudle of an organism's growth, development, reproduction, and survival.
Fecundity The number of offspring produced by an organism per reproductive episode.
Parity The number of reproductive episodes an organism experiences.
Parental investment The amount of time and energy given to an offspring by its parents.
Longevity The life span of an organism. Also known as Life Expectancy.
Principle of allocation The observation that when resources are devoted to one body structure, physiological function, or behavior, they cannot be allotted to another.
Coefficient of determination (R^2) An index that tells us how well data fit to a line.
Determinate growth A growth pattern in which an individual does not grow any more once it initiates reproduction.
Indeterminate growth A growth pattern in which an individual continues to grow after it initiates reproduction.
Semelparity When organisms reproduce only once during their life.
Iteroparity When organisms reproduce multiple times during their life.
Annual An organism that has a life span of one year.
Perennial An organism that has a life span of more than one year.
Senescence A gradual decrease in fecundity and an increase in the probability of mortality.
Photoperiod The amount of light that occurs each day.
Sexual reproduction A reproduction mechanism in which progeny inherit DNA from two parents.
Gonads The primary sexual organs in animals.
Asexual reproduction A reproduction mechanism in which progeny inherit DNA from a single parent.
Vegetative reproduction A form of asexual reproduction in which an individual is produced from the nonsexual tissues of a parent.
Clones Individuals that descend asexually from the same parent and bear the same genotype.
Binary fission Reproduction through duplication of genes followed by division of the cell into two identical cells.
Parthenogenesis A form of asexual reproduction in which an embryo is produced without fertilization.
Cost of meiosis The 50 percent reduction in the number of a parent's genes passed on to the next generation via sexual reproduction versus asexual reproduction.
Red Queen hypothesis The hypothesis that sexual selection allows hosts to evolve at a rate that can counter the rapid evolution of parasites.
Perfect flowers Flowers that contain both male and female parts.
Simultaneous hermaphrodites Individuals that possess male and female reproductive functions at the same time.
Sequential hermaphrodites Individuals that possess male or female reproductive function and then switch to possess the other function.
Monoecious Plants that have separate male and female flowers on the same individual.
Dioecious Plants that contain either only male flowers or only female flowers on a single individual.
Environmental sex determination A process in which sex is determined largely by the environment.
Frequency-dependent selection When the rarer phenotype in a population is favored by natural selection.
Local mate competition When competition for mates occurs in a very limited area and only a few males are required to fertilize all of the females.
Mating system The number of mates each individual has and the permanence of the relationship with those mates.
Promiscuity A mating system in which males mate with multiple females and females mate with multiple males and do not create a lasting social bond.
Polygamy A mating system in which a male mates with more than one female.
Polyandry A mating system in which a female mates with more than one male.
Monogamy A mating system in which a social bond between one male and one female persists through the period that is required for them to rear their offspring.
Extra-pair copulations When an individual that has a social bond with a mate also breeds with other individuals.
Mate guarding A behavior in which one partner prevents the other partner from participating in extra-pair copulations.
Sexual selection Natural selection for sex-specific traits that are related to reproduction.
Sexual dimorphism The difference in the phenotype between males and females of the same species.
Primary sexual characteristics Traits related to fertilization.
Secondary sexual characteristics Traits related to differences between the sexes in terms of body size, ornaments. color, and courtship.
Good gene hypothesis The hypothesis that an individual chooses a mate that possesses a superior genotype.
Good health hypothesis The hypothesis that an individual chooses the healthiest mates.
Runaway sexual selection When selection for preference of a sexual trait and selection for that trait continue to reinforce each other.
The handicap principle The principle that the greater the handicap an individual carries, the greater its ability must be to offset that handicap.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) A molecule composed of two strands of nucleotides that are wound together into a shape known as a double helix.
Chromosomes Compact structures consisting of long strands of DNA that are wound around proteins.
Alleles Different forms of a particular gene.
Polygenic When a single trait is affected by several genes.
Pleiotropy When a single gene affects multiple traits.
Epistasis When the expression of one gene is controlled by another gene.
Heterozygous When an individual has two different alleles of a particular gene.
Homozygous When an individual has two identical alleles of a particular gene.
Codominant When two alleles both contribute to the phenotype.
Dominant An allele that masks the expression of the other allele.
Recessive An allele whose expression is masked by the presence of another allele.
Gene pool The collection of alleles from all individuals in a population.
Mutation A random change in the sequence of nucleotides in regions of DNA that either comprise a gene or control the expression of a gene.
Random assortment The process of making haploid gametes in which the combination of alleles that are placed into a given gamete could be any combination of those possessed by the diploid parent.
Mutation A random change in the sequence of nucleotides in regions of DNA that either comprise a gene or control the expression of a gene.
Recombination The reshuffling of genes that can occur as DNA is copied during meiosis and chromosomes exchange genetic material.
Genetic drift A process that occurs when genetic variation is lost because of random variation in mating, mortality, fecundity, and inheritance.
Bottleneck effect A reduction of genetic diversity in a population due to a large reduction in population size.
Founder effect When a small number of individuals leave a large population to colonize a new area and bring with them only a small amount of genetic variation.
Selection The process by which certain phenotypes are favored to survive and reproduce over other phenotypes.
Stabilizing selection When individuals with intermediate phenotypes have higher survival and reproductive success that those with extreme phenotypes.
Directional selection When individuals with an extreme phenotype experience higher fitness than the average phenotype of the population.
Disruptive selection When individuals with either extreme phenotype experience higher fitness than individuals with an intermediate phenotype.
Microevolution The evolution of population.
Artificial selection Selection in which humans decide which individuals will breed and the breeding is done with a preconceived goal for the traits of the population.
Industrial melanism A phenomenon in which industrial activities cause habitats to become darker due to pollution and, as a result, individuals possessing darker phenotypes are favored by selection.
Macroevolution Evolution at higher levels of organization including species, genera, families, orders, and phyla.
Speciation The evolution of new species.
Phylogenetic trees Hypothesized patterns of relatedness among different groups such as populations, species, or genera.
Allopatric speciation The evolution of new species through the process of geographic isolation.
Sympatric speciation The evolution of new species without geographic isolation.
Polyploid A species that contains three or more sets of chromosomes.
Freshwater wetland An aquatic biome that contains standing fresh water, or soils saturated with fresh water for at least part of the year, and which is shallow enough to have emergent vegetation throughout all depths.
Salt marsh A saltwater biome that contains nonwoody emergent vegetation.
Mangrove swamp A biome that occurs along tropical and subtropical coasts, and contains salt-tolerant trees with roots submerged in water.
Intertidal zone A biome consisting of the narrow band of coastline between the levels of high tide and low tide.
Coral reef A marine biome found in warm, shallow waters that remain 20*C year-round.
Neritic zone The ocean zone beyond the range of the lowest tidal level, and which extends to depths of about 200 m.
Oceanic zone The ocean zone beyond the neritic zone.
Photic zone The area of the neritic and oceanic zones that contains sufficient light for photosynthesis by algae.
Aphotic zone The area of the neritic and ocianic zones where the water is so deep that sunlight cannot penetrate.
Indirect selection Selection that favors indirect fitness. Also known as Kin Selection.
Created by: Briawna



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