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Eco Evo Exam 2 (c.9)

Definitions

TermDefinition
Sexual reproduction A reproduction mechanism in which progeny inherit DNA from two parents.
Gonads The primary sexual organs in animals.
Asexual reproduction A reproduction mechanism in which progeny inherit DNA from a single parent.
Vegetative reproduction A form of asexual reproduction in which an individual is produced from the nonsexual tissues of a parent.
Clones Individuals that descend asexually from the same parent and bear the same genotype.
Binary fission Reproduction through duplication of genes followed by division of the cell into two identical cells.
Parthenogenesis A form of asexual reproduction in which an embryo is produced without fertilization.
Cost of meiosis The 50 percent reduction in the number of a parent's genes passed on to the next generation via sexual reproduction versus asexual reproduction.
Red Queen hypothesis The hypothesis that sexual selection allows hosts to evolve at a rate that can counter the rapid evolution of parasites.
Perfect flowers Flowers that contain both male and female parts.
Simultaneous hermaphrodites Individuals that possess male and female reproductive functions at the same time.
Sequential hermaphrodites Individuals that possess male or female reproductive function and then switch to possess the other function.
Monoecious Plants that have separate male and female flowers on the same individual.
Dioecious Plants that contain either only male flowers or only female flowers on a single individual.
Environmental sex determination A process in which sex is determined largely by the environment.
Frequency-dependent selection When the rarer phenotype in a population is favored by natural selection.
Local mate competition When competition for mates occurs in a very limited area and only a few males are required to fertilize all of the females.
Mating system The number of mates each individual has and the permanence of the relationship with those mates.
Promiscuity A mating system in which males mate with multiple females and females mate with multiple males and do not create a lasting social bond.
Polygamy A mating system in which a single individual of one sex forms long-term social bonds with more than one individual of the opposite sex.
Polygyny A mating system in which a male mates with more than one female.
Polyandry A mating system in which a female mates with more than one male.
Momogamy A mating system in which a social bond between one male and one female persists through the period that is required for them to rear their offspring.
Extra-pair copulations When an individual that has a social bond with a mate also breeds with other individuals.
Mate guarding A behavior in which one partner prevents the other partner from participating in extra-pair copulations.
Sexual selection Natural selection for sex-specific traits that are related to reproduction.
Sexual dimorphism The difference in the phenotype between males and females of the same species.
Primary sexual characteristics Traits related to fertilization.
Secondary sexual characteristics Traits related to differences between the sexes in terms of body size, ornaments. color, and courtship.
Good gene hypothesis The hypothesis that an individual chooses a mate that possesses a superior genotype.
Good health hypothesis The hypothesis that an individual chooses the healthiest mates.
Runaway sexual selection When selection for preference of a sexual trait and selection for that trait continue to reinforce each other.
The handicap principle The principle that the greater the handicap an individual carries, the greater its ability must be to offset that handicap.
Created by: Briawna
 

 



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