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IGHS Winkels

Biology Chapter 3

Ecology the study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment, or surroundings
Biosphere contains the combined portions of the planet in which all of life exists, including land, water, and air(atmosphere)
Species a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
Populations study of groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
Communities a gathering of different populations that live together in a defined area
Ecosystem a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical, environment
Biome a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities
Autotrophs plants, some algae, and certain bacteria can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food
Producers(plants) make their own food from the sun
Photosynthesis a chemical reaction that converts carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
Chemosynthesis when organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
Heterotrophs organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply
Consumers (heterotrophs) herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, detrivores and decomposers
Herbivores eat only plants/cows, caterpillars, and deer
Carnivores eat animals/snakes, dogs, and owls
Omnivores eat plants and animals/humans, bears, and crows
Detrivores feed on plant and animal remains and other dead matter/mites, earthworms snails and crabs
Decomposers break down organic matter/bacteria and fungi
Food Chain a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
Food Web links all the food chains in an ecosystem together
Trophic level each step in a food chain or food web
Ecological Pyramid a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web
Biomass the total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
Biochemical cycle elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another/from one biopshere to another
Evaporation the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
Transpiration when water enters the atmosphere by evaporation from the leaves of plants
Nutrients all the chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life
Nitrogen fixation when bacteria that live in the soil and on the roots of legumes convert nitrogen gas into ammonia
Denitrification when other bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas
Primary productivity the rate at which organic matter is created by producers
Limiting nutrient a single nutrient that is scarce or cycles very slowly in the soil
Algal bloom an immediate increase in the amount of algae in an aquatic ecosystem caused by farm field runoff
Created by: Winkels
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