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chapter 3.1/2/3

vocab terms

cell theory -all organisms are made of cells -all existing cells are produced by other living cells -the cell is the most basic unit of life
cytoplasm a jellylike substance that contains dissolved molecular building blocks (proteins, nucleic acids, minerals, ions, etc)
organelle structures specialized to perform distinct processes within a cell
prokaryotic cell cells that do not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles. the DNA is suspended in the cytoplasm
eukaryotic cell cells that have a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. the nucleus encloses the genetic information
cytoskeleton found in each eukaryotic cell; a flexible network of proteins that provide structural support for the cell
nucleus the storehouse for most genetic information, or DNA, in cells
endoplasmic reticulum an interconnected network of thin, folded membranes
ribosome tiny organelles that link amino acids together to form proteins
Golgi apparatus consists of closely layered stacks of membrane-enclosed spaces that protect, sort, and deliver proteins
vesicle a general name used to describe small, membrane-bound sacs that divide some materials from the rest of the cytoplasm and transport these materials from place to place in a cell
mitochondria supply energy to the cell; bean shaped with two membranes
vacuole a fluid-filled sac used for the storage of materials needed by a cell (water, inorganic ions, enzymes, etc)
lysosome membrane-bound organelles that contain enzymes; defends a cell from invading bacteria and viruses
centriole cylinder-shaped organelles made of short microtubules arranged in a circle
cell wall a rigid layer that gives protection, support, and shape to plant cells
chloroplast organelles that carry out photosynthesis
cell membrane forms a boundary between a cell and the outside environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell
phospholipid a molecule composed of a charged phosphate group, glycerol, and two fatty acid chains
fluid mosaic model describes the arrangement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane
selective permeability the property of a cell membrane that allows some, but not all, materials to cross from outside to the inside of a cell
receptor a protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response
Created by: hornel21