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Biology Study Guide

Module 2

1a. Pathogen 1a. An organism that causes disease.
1b. Saprophyte 1b. An organism that feeds on dead matter.
1c. Parasite 1c. An organism that feeds on a living host.
1d. Aerobic organism 1d. An organism that requires oxygen.
1e. Anaerobic organism 1e. An organism that does not require oxygen.
1f. Steady state 1f. A state in which members of a population die as quickly as new members are born.
1g. Exponential growth 1g. Population growth that is unhindered because of the abundance of resources for an ever-increasing population.
1h. Logistic growth 1h. Population growth that is controlled by limited resources.
1i. Conjugation 1i. A temporary union of two organisms for the purpose of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) transfer.
1j. Plasmid 1j. A small, circular section of extra DNA that confers one or more traits to a bacterium and can be reproduced separately from the main bacterial genetic code.
1k. Transformation 1k. The transfer of a DNA segment from a nonfunctional donor cell to that of a functional recipient cell.
1l. Transduction 1l. The process in which infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another.
1m. Endospore 1m. The DNA and other essential parts of a bacterium coated with several hard layers.
1n. Strains 1n. Organisms from the same species that have markedly different traits.
2. Label all of the indicated structures on the bacterium on page #65&38. a.Plasma membrane b.Flagellum c.Capsule d.Deoxyribonucleic acid e.Cytoplasm f.Cell wall g.Fimbria h.Ribosome
3. Describe the functions of each of the components labeled in problem #2. a.Plasma membrane-Wall of chemicals which regulate what the bacterium takes in from the outside world. b.Flagellum-Used for locomotion. c.Capsule-Adheres bacterium to surfaces. d.DNA-Contains all required information for life of the bacterium.
3. (continued) e.Cytoplasm-Semifluid substance that supports the DNA and ribosomes. f.Cell wall-Holds the contents of the bacterium together. g.Fimbria-Fibrous bristles used for grasping. h.Ribosome-Makes proteins
4. What is the most popular means by which bacteria obtain food? Feeding on dead matter.
5. If a bacterium is parasitic, is it heterotrophic or autotrophic? Heterotrophic because it feeds on a living host.
6. List the basic steps in asexual reproduction (more specifically binary fission) among bacteria. A. DNA loop is attached to a point on the plasma membrane. B. The DNA is then copied. C. Cell wall elongates, separating the two strands of DNA. D. New cell wall material and plasma membrane begin to grow, closing the two strands off from each other.
6. (continued) E. When the cell wall and plasma membrane growth is complete, two bacteria (a parent and an offspring) exist where there was once just one. As long as no mutation took place, the two bacteria are identical.
7. A sample of food is dehydrated, which kills all of the bacteria. Then bacteria-free water is added to the food in a bacteria-free environment. Nevertheless, microscopic investigations indicate that bacteria are in the food. How did they get there? Several of the bacteria formed endospores, which, although the bacteria died, they reformed because the endospore survived.
8. What kind of growth does a population of bacteria experience when just a few of them are placed in an environment rich with resources? Exponential growth.
9. A population of bacteria experiences logistic growth. What can you say about the resources of their environment? The resources are limited.
10. Even though genetic recombination among bacteria does not result in offspring, it can significantly affect the growth of the population. Why? Because DNA can be transfered, resulting in genetic information being donated that could be useful to the recipient, therefore possibly expanding the recipient's life.
11. What are the technical names of the three common bacterial shapes? Coccus (spherical), bacillus (rod-shaped), and spirillem (helical).
12. A bacterium is heterotrophic and Gram-negative. To what phylum and class does it belong? Phylum Gracilicutes and class Scotobacteria.
13. A spirillum bacterium is Gram-positive. To what phylum and class does it belong? Phylum Firmicutes and class Thallobacteria.
14. A bacterium has no cell wall. To what phylum and class does it belong? Phylum Tenericutes and class Mollicutes.
15. A bacterium lives in boiling-hot water. To what phylum and class does it most likely belong? Phylum Mendosicutes and class Archaebacteria.
16. In the six-kingdom classification system, what replaces kingdom Monera? Kingdoms Archaebacteria and Eubacteria.
17. What conditions are ideal for most bacteria to grow and reproduce? Moisture, moderate temperature, nutrition, darkness and oxygen.
18. What methods exist for reducing the chance of bacterial contamination of food? Exposing the food to extreme heat or radiation, freezing the food, and dehydration.
Created by: LiseBrinkley