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Biology

TermDefinition
Energy Energy is the capacity to do work, either actively( kinetic energy) or stored for later use (potential energy). energy is transferred with electrons. Oxidation is the loss of electron. Reduction is the gain of one.
exergonic an energy yielding process; this can be exothermic ( a heat yielding process) or exophotic (a light yielding process)
endergonic an energy requiring process; this can be endothermic (a heat yielding process) or endophotic (a light requiring process)
entropy a measure of randomness in a system; it takes energy input to maintain a complex organized system (hence why you "decay" when you die and no longer have energy to maintain your organized state).
free energy energy which is available to do work( that is, what you want to do) because it is not already in some designated form, such as heat or light.
Gibbs free energy exchange the change in heat content minus the change in entropy multiplies by the absolute temperature
oxidation loss of electron; electron is moved to a lower energy level and therefore energy is released during oxidation; does not always involve oxygen
reduction gain of an electron; electron is moved to higher energy level and this requires an input of energy; this energy is stored, so a molecule or compound like methane is full of potential energy.
metabolism the sum of all energy exchanges that occur through chemical reactions in a living cell; equal to anabolism+catabolism
anabolism all chemical reactions involved in biosynthesis
catabolism all chemical reactions involved in the degeneration of larger molecules
enzymes global water soluble proteins which lower the activation energy of chemical reactions in living cells, thereby speeding up the chemical reaction; act as a catalyst b facilitating reaction without being altered, can be reused as needed.
cofactors most enzymes require additional substances called cofactors in order to function properly; cofactors are divided into inorganic ions and organic coenzymes. Cofactors can change the shape of enzymes to help them fit and process there substrate.
Phosphorylation the process of making ATP
photophosphorylation The use of light to make ATP
oxidative phosphorylation the use of oxygen to make ATP.
Created by: Holiver0114