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Genetics

key terms

TermDefinition
chromosomes DNA and protein, consists of a series of genes
genes Part of a chromosome that controls the development of a particular characteristic
DNA What chromosomes are made of
alleles Alternative format of the same gene
dominant allele Allele that will show even when paired with a recessive allele
recessive allele Allele that is only shown when no dominant allele is present
homozygous The same alleles in a genetic pair
heterozygous Different alleles in a genetic pair
Punnett square The grid used to show Monohybrid inheritance
Clone An individual that is genetically identical to its parent
Diploid A cell that contains two copies (pairs) of each chromosome
Ethics The study of right and wrong and what people should and should not be allowed to do
Gametes Sex cells: sperm and eggs
Genetic engineering Technology involving moving genes from one organism to another, within or between species
Genotype Genetic identity of an organism
Haploid A cell containing one copy of chromosomes
Infertility The inability to reproduce
Inheritance The passing on of features through reproduction
In Vitro Fertilisation Technique to fertilise an egg in artificial conditions outside the female's body
Meiosis The type of division in a cell's nucleus that produces gametes (Sex cells)
Mitosis Type of division in a cell's nucleus that produces new diploid cells for growth or to replace damaged cells
Monohybrid inheritance Genetic inheritance of one characteristic eg eye colour
Mutation A spontaneous change in the genetic material of a cell
Nucleus Part of the cell that contains the chromosomes
Ovum An egg cell
Phenotype The physical expression of the genes an individual possesses eg brown eyes
Transgenic An organism whose genome has received a gene/genes from another organism
Variation The differences between organisms of the same species
Carrier An individual who carries a 'faulty' allele but does not suffer from the condition caused by the faulty allele
Genome All the genetic material of an organism
Human Genome Project International project that set out to establish the sequence of all the bases in the genes of all 23 pairs of human chromosomes
Speciation The process of evolution by which new species are formed
Created by: mrscpage