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enzymes, water etc

enzymes, water, acids and bases

where substrates and enzymes bind together with comlementary shapes and fit together like puzzle pieces.. active site
what happens at the enzyme substate complex? the substrate and active site join temporarily when the active site changes shape slightly causing a snug fit .. this helps chemical bonds break and form to cause a chemical reaction and make products .
what are the names given to the enzyme substate complex models that describe how they work... briefly describe these lock and key... the substrate is like a lock and the enzyme is a specific key that fits and unlocks the reaction induced fit.... newer version of model that is not so rigid and the active site changes shape to "HUG" the substrate better for the reaction
what can happen to the active site if the reaction doesn't have the correct temperature or pH the active site changes shape and will not work for the reaction... the enzyme is denatured or ruined
an enzyme is called a ____ _______ and is made of ______ ( a type of biomolecule) biological catalyst..... made of protein
two charactistics of enzymes? S and R specific and reuseable
The enzyme that works on the sugar sucrose is called ? sucrase enzymes end with "ase"
What enzymes do to get reactions to occur faster they lower the activation energy to get chemical reactions to go faster
A substance that lowers activation energy to start a chemical reaction.. they don't go through permanent changes and can be recovered and reused.. catalyst
where do you write the information about an enzyme that is involved in a chemical reaction above the arrow
the name used to describe the reactant worked on by an enzyme substrate
The electrons in a water molecule are not shared equally.. Oxygen pulls more electrons toward it leaving the hydrogen atoms with less electrons... the result is a molecule with a slightly negative and slightly positive end CALLED a/an Polar Molecule
In polar molecules what happens when a positive end gets close to the negative end of another polar molecule ( in general) They attract each other
What term describes the water molecules forming droplets and having a very strong surface that insects etc can rest on without sinking surface tension
What happens when the positive end of one water molecule comes near the negative end of another water molecule... what do they call this occurance in water ( note it can happen between hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms , fluorine, or nitrogen atoms) they are attracted to each other and this is called hydrogen bonding
How does the strength of a hydrogen bond in water compare to the strength of the bonds holding the water molecule together ( the electrons are being shared) the hydrogen bonds are WEAKER... liquid ... hydrogen bonds are continually being broken and formed... solid ( ice) the temperature is cold enough to keep the hydrogen bonds making a lattice (crystal ) structure... and in gas they are broken
What term describes water molecules being attracted to each other because of the hydrogen bonds COHESION
How are hydrogen bonds shown in a diagram dashed lines connect the negative oxygen atom and the positive hydrogen of neighboring molecules...
what is water called since it is a able to put polar and ionic substances into solution easily ( dissolved them) universal solvent
what fancy word describes substances that are ionic or polar since they seem to love interacting with water hydrophillic
What happens when water and oil meet ( oil is a lipid) they do not interact.... lipid cannot be dissolved by water. that means lipids are non polar and they are hydrophobic
substance that does dissolving ( substance in which another substance is dissolved ) solvent
substance being dissolved such as salt or sugar in a water solution solute
When water is attracted to another substance or another surface ADHESION
what is capillary action and what causes capillary action capillary action is the spontaneous movement of water up a narrow tube... it is cause by adhesion and cohesion that happens with water molecules
how does water move up a plant's xylem ( tube that transports water from the roots to the leaves) the water sticks to the sides of the xylem tube because of adhesion and then since water is hooked to each other like a string of beads(cohesion).. as one leaves because of evaporation it pulls on the next one in line ... etc etc.
What is a measure of H+ ions in a solution... it tells the relative strength of acids and bses pH scale there is also a pOH scale ( wait for chemistry)
These have an abundance of H+ ions in solution and a pH of lower than 7 acids
these have an abundance of OH- ions ( hydroxide) in solution and a pH of greater than 7... to 14 bases
distilled water is an example of this type of solution that has an equal concentration of H+ and OH- ions and a pH of 7 neutral
What would happen to the pH and the H+ concentration as you added more and more acid to distilled water the pH would be lower and the H+ concentration would increase
What would happen to the pH and the H+ concentration as you added more and more base to distilled water the pH would be higher and the H+ concentration would decrease
What numbers on the pH scale are more acidic the lower the number the more acidic
Which is more basic a number near 7 or a number near 14 a number near 14 is more basic
What happens to the density of water as it goes from a liquid to the solid form ( ice) The water is less dense in the solid or ice form ( the solid state expands...unusual for a substance when freezing)... so it is less dense since it have more volume... ice floats... important for lakes , ponds, and streams in the winter.
How does water stabilize or regulate the temperature in aquatic environments water resists changing temperature so the temperatures stay fairly constant... also why ponds don't freeze as fast as the land in the winter
What effect does evaporation have on an organism's temperature evaporation has a cooling effect on a surface or an organim.... as the water molecules evaporate they leave the surface and take their heat with them ... a cooling effect
Created by: shemehl



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