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Biochemistry Vocab

TermDefiniation
Respiration Process used by organisms to release the energy from food
Transport (Circulation) The movement of material around an organism
Synthesis The chemical combination of smaller molecules to create larger ones
Excretion The removal of cellular waste
Regulation Maintains homeostasis
Homeostasis Maintaining a stable internal environment
Growth Being able to grow larger as well as repair when needed
Reproduction The ability of living things to create more of their kind
Locomation The ability of an organism to move
Sessile Do not have the ability to move
Motile Able to move
Metabolism The sum of all living processes needed to sub stain life
Nutrition Obtaining and processing of materials by an organism to use it
Autotrophic Nutrtition Creating their own food
Photosynthesis A process that uses sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to create energy for the organism
Chemosynthesis Use carbon dioxide, water and heat that comes from the vents is produced with hydrogen sulfide and oxygen to form the carbohydrate and sulfur
Heterotropic Nutrition Organisms that can not make their own food
Injestion Take in food
Digestion Break down food
Egestion Remove undigested food
Asexual Reproduction One parent
Sexual Reproduction Two parents
Elements Made up of only one type of atom
4 Most common elements Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen
N Nitrogen
C Carbon
O Oxygen
N Nitrogen
Compound Made up of 2 or more elements
Organic Compounds Contains Carbon and Hydrogen
4 Major Organic Compounds Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, & Nucleic Acids
Inorganic Does not contain Carbon with hydrogen attached
Acids Have an excess amount of H+, 1-6 on the pH scale
Bases Have an excess amount of OH-, 8-14 on the pH scale
pH scale The measure of how acidic or basic a compound is
Neutral pH of 7
Carbohydrates Contains C, H, & O; used to produce energy
Building Block of Carbohydrates Simple Sugar
Monosaccharide Simple sugar, ONE ring. Ex: Glucose
Disaccharide 2 simple sugars joined together. Ex: Maltose
Polysaccharide Many simple sugars joined together. Ex: Starch
Lipids Contains C, H, & O; major source of energy.
Building Blocks of Lipids 3 Fatty Acids and Glycerol
Nucleic Acid Made up of nucleotides
Building Blocks of Nucleic Acid Nucleotides
DNA Heredity information
RNA Used to produce proteins
Fats, Oils, & Waxes Examples of Lipids
Proteins Made up of C, H, O, & N
Building Blocks of Proteins Amino Acids
Dipeptide Two amino acids chemically attached by a peptide bond
Peptide Bond Chemically attaches two proteins
Polypeptide More than two amino acids chemically connected together
Hormones, Enzymes, & Antibodies Examples of Proteins
Organic Catalyst Enzymes
Enzymes Made of proteins, usually end in -ase
Substrate Binds with an enzyme
Enzyme - Substrate Complex When an enzyme and substrate bind together
Lock and Key Theory Each enzyme is specific for only one substrate
Lipase Breaks down lipids
Protease Breaks down protein
Maltase Breaks down maltose
Lactase Breaks down lactose
Sucrase Breaks down sucrose
Effects enzymes Temperature, pH, and Concentration of substrate/enzymes
Created by: CMacKay16