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Antibody isotopes

HND Immunology

Name the immunoglobulin classes. IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE.
Describe immunoglobulin G. Produced in response to protein antigens, it makes up 80% of the total antibodies in serum. It has a molecular weight of 150kD with 4 sub-types; IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4. Provides the bulk of immunity to blood born infections.
What response does IgG play a major part in? Secondary response.
What is special about IgG? It is the only antibody that can cross the placenta.
Describe immunoglobulin A. A 170kD monomer in serum that exists as a 340kD dimer in external secretions. Dimer contains secretory component and a separate joining chain, it is found in colostrum, milk and saliva and provides immunity at mucosal surfaces and against micro-organisms.
Describe immunoglobulin M. The first antibody to be produced during primary response, it is expressed on the surface of B cells as a monomer and acts as the B cell receptor. As a free antibody in the blood it exists as a pentamer with a molecular weight of 900kD.
Describe immunoglobulin D. Found at low levels in serum, this monomer acts as an antigen binding site on B cells as it is also expressed on the B cell surface.
Describe immunoglobulin E. Only present at low levels in serum. Has a role in inflammation and allergy but gives protection against parasites. Binds to mast cells via it's Fc region and causes their de-granulation.
What is released from mast cells during their de-granulation ? Histamines. Cytokines. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), heparin and proteases.
What is the second form of IgA and where can it be found? Secretory IgA, can be found in tears, saliva, sweat and breast-milk.
How many hyper-variable domains are found on IgG? 12 as IgG is a monomer and has 3 hyper-variable domains each for its two heavy chains and two light chains.
How many hyper-variable domains are found on IgA? Internal monomeric from has 12 hyper-variable domains like IgG, but dimeric form has 24 hyper-variable domains.
How many hyper-variable domains are found on IGM? IgM is a pentamer as a free antibody in blood, with each sub-unit containing 12 hyper-variable domains, meaning it has 60 hyper-variable domains overall, IgM expressed on B cell surfaces are monomers and so have 12 hyper-variable domains.
How many hyper-variable domains are found on IgD? IgD is a monomer with 12 hyper-variable domains.
How many hyper-variable domains are found on IgE? IgE is a monomer with 12 hyper-variable domains.
What assortment can there be in the type of light chains present on an antibody? Kappa-kappa or lambda-lambda, can not be kappa-lambda.
What type of bond stabilises the 3D structure of an antibody? Disulphide bonds.
How do the heavy chains of an antibody compare to each other? They are identical.
Created by: MushetJ