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IGHS Winkels

Biology Chapter 2

Atom basic unit of matter made up of three subatomic particles
Protons positive charge
Neutrons carry no charge
Electrons negatively charged particle that constantly move around the space surrounding the atom's nucleus
Atoms have the same number of protons and electrons, so they are neutral
Elements a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom
Isotopes atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons
Mass number the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Chemical Compound a substance formed by the chemical combinations of two or more elements in definite proportions
Chemical Bonds hold together atoms in compounds
Valence Electrons electrons that form bonds/located in the outermost shell of an atom
Ionic Bond forms when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another, forming ions
Atom loses electrons becomes positively charged/gains electrons becomes negatively charged/opposites attract forming a bond
Covalent Bond forms when electrons are shared rather than transferred
Molecule smallest unit of most compounds
van der Vaals forces hydrogen bonds/intermolecular forces of attraction
Hydrogen Bond the attraction between a hydrogen atom of one water molecule and the oxygen atom of another water molecule
Cohesion an attraction between molecules of the same substance/produces surface tension
Adhesion is an attraction between molecules and different substances
Capillary Action an effect that causes water to rise in a narrow tube against the force of gravity
Mixture is a material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together(Trail Mix)
Solution a mixture in which all the components are eveny spread out(Kool-Aid)
Solutes substances dissolved in water
Suspension mixture of water and undissolved materials
Pure Water pH of 7
Acid any compound that forms H+ ions in solution/pH values 1-6
Base a compound that forms OH- ions in solution/Basic, or alkaline solutions have pH values 8-14
Buffers weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sudden changes in pH.
Organic Chemistry study of compounds with bonds between carbon atoms
Carbon Atoms have 4 valence electrons
Macromolecules large molecules/form by polymerization (small monomers join together to from polymers)
Carbohydrates (starches & sugars) are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen/main energy source of living things
monosaccharides molecules with one sugar monomer
disaccharides made up of two monosaccharides
Lipids (fats, oils, waxes) made up of fatty acids and glycerols/used to store energy
Nucleic Acids contain hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus/polymers of nucleotides
Nucleotide has three parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
Proteins made up of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Proteins control the rate of reactions, regulate cell processes, form cellular structures, carry substances into/out of cells, and help fight disease
Peptide Bonds covalent bonds that link amino acids together to form polypeptide
Chemical Reaction a process that changes, or transforms, one set of chemicals into another by changing the chemical bonds that join atoms in compounds
Products the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
Activation Energy energy needed to get a reaction started
Enzymes proteins that act as biological catalysts/speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells
Created by: Winkels



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