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Bio Lab Quiz 2

Hallmarks of Multicellularity Specialization of cells and the cooperation of these cells to maintain life
Closest living ancestor to animals Choanoflagellates
What is required to achieve cooperation of cells Cell adhesion and cell communication
Cell adhesion Cells must adhere to one another, requires genes for cell adhesion proteins
Why do choanoflagellates have genes needed for multicellularity? These genes are probably used to stick to surfaces and capture prey but then were repurposed by evolution to perform the functions of cell adhesion and communication in multicelluar animals
Cell Communication Required in order for cells to cooperate, requires genes for signaling proteins and protein receptors
Evolution of multicellularity Multicellularity has evolved many times independently (convergent evolution)
Sponges Multicellular, no tissues, no organs, no organ system; cells is the highest unit in proifera- "pore bearers"
Spongocoel The central, open cavity in a sponge through which water flows
Osculum A large opening in a sponge through which water flows out of the sponge. Sponges may have more than one oscula.
Choanocyte Line the inner cavity of the sponge; have a sticky, funnel-shaped collar that collects food particles and a flagellum to pump water through the sponge. The sponge obtains its nutrients and oxygen by processing flowing water
Porocyte Cells with pores that allow water into the sponge; they are located all over the sponge's body
Mesohyl The gelatinous layer between the outer body of the sponge and the spongocoel
Spicule Sharp spikes (made of calcium carbonate) located in the mesohyl; form the "skeleton" of many sponges
Amoebocyte Digests food particles and distributes them
Symmetry Asymmetry; asconoids and syconoid sponges have radial symmetry
Sponges are sessile Immobile
Basic tasks of staying alive Get nutrients (glucose, amino acids, fatty acids) to cells, get rid of indigestible material= ingestion, digestion, absorption elimination. Circulation, gas exchange, excretion, nerve and muscle, and reproduction
Leucenoids Most surface area= more choanocytes so can grow bigger in size from nutrients
Asconoids Cannot increase in size, because theres a smaller surface area and therefore less choanocytes
Sponges need to get rid of... Ammonia
Sponges are vulnerable to Attacks by predators, being crowded by other organisms competing for space on reefs, being overgrown which affects water flow, infection by pathogenic microorganisms
Sponge's Defense Spicules and chemical toxins
Porifera Reproduction Individual sponge produces egg and sperm. Sperm are released and enter another sponge where it fertilizes an egg. A larva develops and is carried out by the water current; it settles down on a surface and develops into an adult sponge
Sponges are dependent on ____ for staying alive Water flow
Gas exchange and excretion between cells and environment Each cell is on a surface (single layer) so they're all touching seawater; gases and wastes can diffuse across cell membranes
Parazoa Only living animals in this clade are sponges
Focus using 4x objective and 10x objective Coarse focus knob
As objective moves up, working distance _____ Decreases
Focus using 40x objective Fine focus knob
Preferable way to adjust light Diaphragm
What are tardigrades? Eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotroph that ingests food... animal!
Microvilli Capture small particles
Working Distance The distance between the objective that is in place and the slide
The ocular lenses have a magnifying power of 10x
Total magnification of micrscope = Ocular power (10x) times Objective power (4x, 10x, or 40x)
Depth of Field The range of depth that a specimen is in acceptable focus; as magnification increases, depth of field decreases
Created by: knuepril