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Cell function Vocab

Active Transport is the movement of molecules across a cell membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration
Adenosine TriPhosophate (ATP) a compound consisting of an adenosine molecule bonded to three phosphate groups, present in all living tissue.
Carbohydrate Chains The biological functions of carbohydrate chains attached through serine or threonine residues (O-linked) of glycoproteins are less well-defined,
Carrier Protein A protein that transports specific substance through intracellular compartments, into the extracellular fluid,
Cell Membrane the semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.
Cell Specialization Cells throughout an organism can develop in different ways to perform different tasks.
Cell Theory a theory in biology that includes one or both of the statements that the cell is the fundamental structural and functional unit of living matter
Cell Wall a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher plants, it consists mainly of cellulose.
Channel Protein is a protein that allows the transport of specific substances across a cell membrane.
Centrioles a minute cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.
Chromosome a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
Concentration Gradient is the process of particles, which are sometimes called solutes, moving through a solution or gas
Endoplasmic Reticulum a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a Eukaryota cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane. It usually has chromosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis.
Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell.
Equilibrium A state in which opposing forces or influences are balanced.
Eukaryote An organism whose cells contain a nucleus surrounded by a membrane and whose DNA is bound together by proteins into chromosomes.
Exocytosis a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane.
Homeostasis the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes.
Hypertonic Having a higher osmotic pressure than a particular fluid, typically a body fluid or intracellular fluid.
Hypotonic having a lower osmotic pressure than a particular fluid, typically a body fluid or intracellular fluid.
Isotonic Solution refers to two solutions having the same osmotic pressure across a semipermeable membrane.
Lipid Bilayer A two-layered arrangement of phosphate and lipid molecules that form a cell membrane, the hydrophobic lipid
Mitochondrion an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
Multicelluar Having or consisting of many cells or more than one cell to perform all vital functions.
Nuclear Envelope The two layered membrane that encases the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, which separates the nucleus from other cell organelles.
Nucleolus a small dense spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell during interphase.
Nucleus Is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Organ A group of tissues in a living organism that have been adapted to perform a specific function
Organ System an organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions
Organelle an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function
Osmosis Is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration,
Osmosis Pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane.
Passive transport is a movement of ions and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input.
Prokaryote A microscopic single-celled organism which has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles
Protein A molecule composed of polymers of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds
Ribosome A sphere-shaped structure within the cytoplasm of a cell that is composed of RNA and protein and is the site of protein synthesis.
Semi-Permeable A membrane that is selectively permeable, i.e. being permeable to only certain molecules and not to all molecules.
Simple Diffusion refers to a process whereby a substance passes through a membrane without the aid of an intermediary such as a integral membrane protein.
Solute whereas the dissolved substance is called a solute.
Solvent A liquid in which substances (or solutes) are dissolved forming a solution
Tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Tonicity is a measure of the effective osmotic pressure gradient,
Unicelluar organisms are composed of a single cell,
Vacuole A cavity within the cytoplasm of a cell, surrounded by a single membrane and containing fluid, food, or metabolic waste.