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Biology Exam 2

QuestionAnswer
What replaced the spontaneous generation theory biogenesis theory
who created the biogenesis theory Virchow and Pasteur
what is the biogenesis theory that all life coming from a common ancestor from outer space
who created the cell theory a botanist Schlseiden and zoologist Schwann
what is the cell theory 1) all living things are composed of cellss(biogenesis) 2) cells come from preexisting cells 3) the chemical reactions of life occur within cells 4) cells contain hereditary information
no defined nucleus bacteria and blue-green algae does NOT include viruses (which are NOT life) Prokaryote
defined nucleus surrounded by a membrane algae, protozoans, fungi, plants, and animals Eukaryote
Is an energy source makes their own food phototroph or chemotrophs blue green algae are phototrophs green algae and plants are photophs some bacteria are chemotrophs Autotrophic
obtain food which is already organic in its nature includes pathogenic bacteria and fungi includes all animals and most protozoans animals: herbivore, carnivore, omnivore Heterotrophic
live
use light beam as illuminating source light microscope
like the ones you use in Bio 101 labs Bright field
light waves out of sync with each other creates relief effect so organism is lifted up from the background includes phase contrast and normaski differential interference contrast Interference
are use electron beams in place of light to obtain higher magnification used to study ultrasound and 3-D structure electron microscopes
electron beam scans outer surface can be modified to S.T.M which will produce computer enhanced images of molecules like DNA S.E.M.
transmission electron microscope: beam passes through into cytoplasm can also use of heavy metals as "shadow stains" which is commonly used to see very small viruses used to see cytoplasmic ultrastructure and cellular organelles T.E.M.
where are cell walls found prokaryotes, algae, plants, fungi
analogous to a cardboard box surrounding a balloon cell wall
not found in animal cells cell wall
comprised of beta (1,4) linked homopolysaccharide cellulose in plant cells and green algae cell wall
regulates what passes into and out of cell cell to cell recognition connection and adhesion cell communication Plasma Membrane
instructions to protein synthesis snd cell reproduction contains genetic information Nucleus
Contains hereditary information used to direct synthesis of proteins Chromosomes
synthesis of rRNA and ribosome assembly Nucleolus
Ribosomes sites of protein synthesis
Intracellular compartment forms transport vesicles participates in lipid synthesis and synthesis of membrane or secreted proteins ER
packages proteins for export from cell forms sensory vesicles Golgi Apparatus
digest worn out organelles and cell debris digest material taken up by endocytosis Lysosomes
isolate particular chemical activities from rest of cell Micro bodies
Power plant of the cell sites of oxidative metabolism Mitochondria
sites of photosynthesis Chloroplasts
structural support cell movement movement of vesicles within cells Cytoskeleton
motility or moving fluids over surfaces Flagella
Protection and support cell wall
selectively permeable membrane not semi permeable Osmosis
device used to measure osmotic pressure osmometer
osmotic pressure within cells which helps to keep cell organized internally Turgor Pressure
red blood cells curtsy in hypertonic?hypotonic media Hemolysis
red blood cells shrink in hypertonic?hypotonic media Crenation
in freshwater protozoans contractile vacuole
membrane channels or membrane pumps permeases
protein doorway : involves a pore or channel maybe another carrier facilitltated diffusion
same direction symport ion exchange channels
opposite direction antiport ion exchange channels
what is ATP called active transport
includes endocytosis into cells and exocytosis out of cells bulk movement
what is endocytosis involves binding to receptor on the cell membrane and coating of the entering vacuole with the proteins clathrin from a coated pit
what is exocytosis removes indigestible materia vacuole/vesicle fuses with cell membrane and then burst outside the cell
phagocytosis solids
pinocytosis cell drinking
the lack of contact inhibition tumor or cancer
what are chemical messengers hormones
plasmodesmata plants; channels between cell walls
tight junctions animals "saran wrap" around cells preventing leaking; close but never touch
desmosomes animals "spot weld" between two cells; used for mechanical strength
gap junction animals small channels; communication used to synchronize contortions of muscle cells in heart and is also used for carrying impulses in nerve cells (neurons)
photograph of homologues arranged by size ; can see abnormalities in chromosome numbers and/ or structure karyotype
complete set of replicated chromosomes diploid
one half set replicated chromosomes haploid
merger of sperm and egg forms a diploid fertilized egg called a zygote
specialized protein centromere region of each chromosome used for attachment of spindle fibers so that the separation of the replicated chromosomes can occur kinetochores
smaller protein tubes that surround each centriole in animal cells used for added support so that the cells do not burst at the poles when the chromosomes are separated asters
blue and green algae are what autotrophic
Created by: esenkbeil