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agriculture the science and tech of growing and raising plants & animals
forestry the science and tech of culturing, utilizing, and improving forest trees and their products (ex. pulp, oil)
agronomy the science and tech of culturing, utilizing, and improving field crops (grain, fiber, and forage crops)
horticulture the science, tech, and art of culturing, utilizing, and improving fruit, vegetable, flowering, and ornamental plants
areas of agriculture 1. horticulture 2. agronomy 3. forestry
areas of horticulture 1. olericulture 2. pomology 3. ornamental horticulture
olericulture vegetable production
pomology fruit & nut production
ornamental horticulture NO FOOD; plants grown for aesthetic, environment, or functional uses (ex. E conservation)
areas of ornamental horticulture 1. floriculture 2. floristry 3. nursery production 4. landscape horticulture
floriculture flowering and foliage plant production
floristry floral design & retail
nursery production tree, shrub, and vine production
landscape horticulture exterior and interior design; construction and maintenance of landscapes
turf grasses for lawns, stadiums, landscapes, and golf courses
classical guidelines for placement of a crop in horticulture, agronomy, or forestry 1. intensity of production 2. purpose crop is grown for 3. tradition or custom
organs of a plant 1. flower 2. stem 3. root 4. leaf
tissue systems of a plant 1. dermal 2. vascular 3. ground or fundamental
dermal tissue system SKIN; protect from environment and from water loss; epidermis OR periderm/bark
epidermis single layer of cells on PRIMARY (herbaceous) plant parts
periderm or bark corky tissue that replaces epidermis on SECONDARY (woody) plant parts
vascular tissue system VEINS (on leaf); conduction of water, nutrients, sugars, and hormones thruout the plant; xylem AND phloem
xylem conducts water and nutrients UP roots, stems, and leaves
phloem conducts water, sugar, hormones, etc. DOWN & UP roots, stems, and leaves; moves from where produced (sources) to where needed (sinks)
ground or fundamental tissue system tissue betw. veins; storage, support, filler tissue, and site of photosynthesis; cortex, pith, and mesophyll
cortex outer region of stem and roots
pith center of stems
mesophyll middle of leaves and flower petals
3 basic cell types 1. parenchyma 2. collenchyma 3. screlenchyma
parenchyma PRIMARY cell walls; non-lignified; ex. flesh of potato, lettuce leaf, apple (can be eaten)
collenchyma PRIMARY cell walls; non-lignified; ex. strings in celery stalks
sclerenchyma SECONDARY cell walls; lignified (tough); ex. bamboo
2 types of sclerenchyma a. fiber (cant chew, stringy) b. sclereid or stone cell (coconut)
animal cells do not have a ____ ________ cell wall
polysaccharide a polymer of chain of sugars
types of polysaccharides 1. cellulose 2. hemicellulose 3. pectin
cellulose most common; forms a matrix of microfibilis
hemicellulose filler betw. cellulose microfibilis
pectin cementing agent or filler; high in middle lamella and fruit
middle lamella joins cells together (ex. gum that joins 2 balloons----ONLY ON 2ND CELL WALL---TOUGH); sticky mostly pectin
lignin tough polymer of phenolic compounds; HIGH IN 2ND CELL WALL
protein mainly structural
plasmalemma/plasma membrane the membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm; semi-permeable--regulates absorption and leaking; LETS IN GOOD KEEPS OUT BAD; all cells have it
every membrane is ________ & gives _______ if _________ cell will die semi-permeable; rigidity; ruptured
plasmodesmata how cells communicate; extensions thru cell walls
cytoplasm cytosol plus organelles; most metabolism occurs in the cytosol or the organelles
cytosol fluid portion of the cytoplasm;
organelles specialized structures in cytoplasm; each with specific functions
organelles: nucleus brain of cell; location of DNA and some RNA; chromosomes & nucleolus inside
nucleus: chromosome strands or coils of DNA
nucleus: nucleolus spherical dense body; site of ribosome synthesis
organelles: mitochondrion MAJOR SITE OF RESPIRATION; "power house" of cell
organelles: plastid animal cells dont have one; double membrane-bound bodies for storage and photosynthesis
leucoplast colorless plastids
amyloplast starch storage
elaioplast fat and oil storage
chromoplast (*) colored plastids for storage of CAROTENOIDS (orange and yellow pigments)
chloroplast green plastids that contain chlorophyll; the site of photosynthesis
carotenoids orange and yellow pigments
endoplastic reticulum for communication across the cytoplasm; site of protein & membrane synthesis; MOVE THINGS AROUND CELL
ribosome dense spheres of RNA; PROTEIN SYNTHESIS occurs on their surface
vacuole stores waste, acids, salts, anthocyanins (blue, red, purple pigments), enzymes
ANTHOCYANINS blue, red, purple pigments
tonoplast membrane that surrounds the vacuole
golgi body/dictyosome disk-shaped membranes for membrane and polysaccharide synthesis
microbody membrane bound STORAGE bodies w various functions
microtubule tubular rods used in mitosis & cellulose ORIENTATION in cell walls
how many genes in our body 30,000
how many chromosomes in our body 23
diff colors = ____ ______ in chromosome string example diff genes
genes will pul themselves from coil; isolate; unspiral into 2 parts bc one side will duplicate self & then come together again
mRNA reflection of DNA
GMOs genes removed and added to other orgs
1st GMO was a cotton plant w bacteria protein to kill pests
DNA a double-helix chain of sugar-phosphates connected by nucleic acids (ATGC)
RNA single stranded chain of sugar-phosphates containing nucleic acids (AUGC)
nucleic acids org acids that form the base pairs of DNA and single-bases of RNA
A goes w T (DNA) or U (RNA)
G goes w C (DNA & RNA)
gene a length of DNA that codes for the production of a protein; also codes for active RNAs (such as tRNA)
protein a polymer or chain of amino acids
enzyme a protein that acts as a metabolic catalyst
some proteins act as ________ catalysts
genetic dogma genes do nothing, only unravel
DNA is instructions for how to ______ ______ & ________ do the rest of the work make proteins; proteins
plants grow from localized areas called _________ meristems
meristem discrete regions or groups of cells that possess continued cell division for the life of the plant or that organ
primary growth growth in LENGTH that gives rise to primary (herbaceous) tissues
primary growth: apical meristem or apex growing points located at the tips of stems and roots (GROWS IN LENGTH)
primary growth: intercalary meristem the growth region at the base of grass leaves that causes leaves to elongate (ex. BLADES OF GRASS----JUST LONG GRASS LEAVES)
secondary growth growth in WIDTH or diameter that gives rise to secondary (woody or corky) tissues
secondary growth: lateral meristem meristematic regions along the sides of stems and roots
2 types of lateral meristems give rise to secondary growth 1. vascular cambium or cambium 2. cork cambium or phellogen
lateral meristems : vascular cambium or cambium makes rings of wood-----secondary xylem
lateral meristems : cork cambium or phellogen gives rise to the periderm (BARK)
phyll = leaf
xylem points inward
phloem points outward
spring tree rings = largest growth ----> bigger wider & lighter rings
fall/winter tree rings = shortest growth -----> darker & thinner rings
T/F roots can be woody true
buds are attached to ______ nodes
monocots (*) long & linear leaves (ex. corn); // venation; herbaceous to wood-like growth but no true wood; CAN NEVER BE WOODY
dicots (*) broad leaves; net venation; herbaceous or woody; CAN BE WOODY
gymnosperms (*) needle-like (ex. Xmas trees); herbaceous or woody; CAN BE WOODY
bud an underdev. & unelongated stem composed of a short axis w compressed internodes, a meristematic apex, and primordial leaves and/or flowers
terminal bud a bud at the tip of a stem responsible for terminal growth (tips)
axillary bud or lateral bud buds along the sides of a stem; produced by the terminal bud during growth
flower bud a bud containing a floral meristem which develops into flowers; usually larger than vegetative buds
leaf scar a scar marking the former point of attachment of a leaf or petiole to stem
internode the part of stem betw. nodes
node part of stem marking the point of attachment of leaves, flowers, fruits, buds, and other stems
lenticel rough areas on stem; breathing pores; only occur on young stems;
growth rings bud scale scars from last terminal bud; used to age stems;one growth rate usually = 1 year (like a tree)
primary growth stem description for dicot & gymnosperm epidermis surrounds; phloem and xylem surround in inner circle; pith in middle; cortex
vascular bundle xylem and phloem
xylem always faces inner (3 small dots)
phloem always faces outer (1 big dot)
secondary growth stem description for dicot or gymnosperm periderm surrounds (bark); xylem inner circle; phloem surrounding next to periderm; both xylem and phloem thicken every year (xylem > phloem)
cambium (secondary growth stem description for dicot or gymnosperm) circle that surrounds
ray (secondary growth stem description for dicot or gymnosperm) radian-like lines thruout
monocot primary growth stem description vascular bundles are scattered; epidermis surrounds
monocot, dicot, and gymnosperm root description in primary growth virtually same for all; xylem is in the middle like a t surrounded by phloems; root hairs; endodermis
root hair site of absorption of water and nutrients and sometimes bad stuff
endodermis on roots; enzyme; inner epidermis
dicot or gymnosperm root description in secondary growth almost same as woody stem; except has xylem in center instead of pith
simple leaf: blade/lamina flattened part of leaf
simple leaf: margin edge of leaf
simple leaf: midrib prominent central vein
simple leaf: lateral veins secondary veins
simple leaf: petiole leaf stalk (connects leaf to stem)
simple leaf: stipules baby leaves at base of petiole
compound leaf: leaflet secondary leaf to a compound leaf
compound leaf small leaves that look like one big leaf
compound leaf: rachis an extension of petiole bearing leaflets
compound leaf: petiolule the leaflet stalk
leaf arrangements: alternate one leaf per node in a staggering (spiral) way along stem
leaf arrangements: opposite two leaves (pair) per node usually opposite each other
leaf arrangements: whorled three or more leaves per node usually equally spaces around node
simple leaf types 1. pinnate venation 2. palmate venation 3. parallel venation
pinnate venation simple leaf; feather-like
palmate venation simple leaf; finger-like
parallel venation simple leaf; like a blade of grass
compound leaf types 1. pinnately compound 2. palmately compound
pinnately compound feather-like compound leaf
palmately compound finger-like compound leaf
stoma air goes in and out of leaf; hole created by 2 cells that touch each other but are not joined
monocots and dicots leaves are similar except monocots have no palisade and mesophyll is all spongy
gymnosperm leaf example pine needle
stoma opens during day; water uptake
stoma closes during night; water loss
stoma in photosynthesis CO2 inhaled & O2 released
stoma for respiration CO2 released & O2 inhaled
palisade parenchyma is specialized for photosynthesis
spongy mesophyll is specialized for respiration
sun grown leaf thicker bc thicker palisade parenchyma
shade grown leaf thinner but bigger and more pliable due to thinner palisade parenchyma and more spongy mesophyll
complete flower contains all floral parts (pistil, stamen, petal, sepal)
incomplete flower lacks one or more of the floral parts (doesnt have to be imperfect)
perfect flower contains both pistil and stamen (may or may not have sepal or petal) REPRODUCTIVE PARTS
imperfect flower lacks either pistil or stamen (may or may not have sepal or petal); has to be incomplete; NOT ALL REPRODUCTIVE PARTS
pistillate female part; pistil
staminate male part; stamen
monoecious both sexes on SAME PLANT
dioecious SEPARATE male & female plants (holly: females = berries; males = no berries)
fruit ripened ovary
pericarp fruit wall
exocarp outer layer of pericarp
mesocarp middle layer of pericarp
endocarp inner layer of pericarp
seed ripened ovule covered by a testa
testa seed coat; protective outer layer of most seeds
flower structure: stigma sticky; where the pollen lands
carp = fruit
seed structure: cotyledon storage
seed structure: hilium bellybutton; umbilical cors
petal function attract pollinators
not all plants have _________ flowers
corolla all petals together
calyx all sepals (little green leaves at base of flower) together
ovary where fruit comes from
ovule makes seed
stigma and anther recognize each other as ________ species through ______ ______ same species thru chemical processes
dark reaction can only occur when light is on & stops after secs. that light goes off
dark reaction needs LIGHT
chloroplast the green plastid in which photosyn. occurs
chlorophyll green pigment that absorbs light needed for photosyn.; inside chloroplast
thylakoids pancake-looking things; flattened sack-like membranes inside chloroplast; have chlorophyll inside
granum (pl. grana) stack of thylakoids; stack of pancakes
stroma lamellae tubular membranes that connect the grana in the chloroplast
stroma fluid matrix of the chloroplast
net equation for photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O ---(LIGHT)--> C6H12O6 + 6O2
net equation for respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---(LIGHT)--> 6CO2 + 6H2O
light reaction part of photosynthesis that uses water and light to produce the oxygen
dark reaction part of photosynthesis that uses the carbon dioxide to make the carb (sugar--glucose)
increasing inputs speeds up reaction
decreasing outputs speeds up reaction
decreasing inputs slows down reaction
increasing outputs slows down reaction
chlorophyll absorbs _____ & _____ light and reflects _______ light red and blue; green
why didnt the green greenhouse work? green color reflected light so plants got not light absorbed bc it was being reflected so the plants felt in the shade
CAM plants desert plants
CAM plants stoma opening & closing times open (NIGHT) & close (DAY--- bc its hot)
HID lights football fiel lights; for plants to grow as fast as outdoors
quality the wavelength/color of light
quantity intensity or amount of light
if T increases; photosynthesis will __________ until it gets _____ _______ & stoma will _______ increase; too hot; close
water stress will cause plants to ______ stoma close
any deficiency in nutrients will cause plants to _______ stoma close
the ratio needed for fluorescent & incandescent to mimic summer sunlight 70/30
which artificial light source is best for plants fluorescent bc similar to chlorophyll absorption
plants saturate out in photosynthesis rate in 1,200-2,000 range foot candles
tall plants should be put on the _______ side north
short plants should be put on the _______ side south
if u increase CO2; respiration will decrease
if u increase oxygen; respiration will increase
if u decrease oxygen; respiration will decrease
always want respiration to ______ so CO2 must ______ & O2 must ________ decrease/slow down; increase; decrease
anaerobic without O2
lysis to break glucose
plants make ________ the sugar they actually need 10x
plants store excess sugar in amynoplast
plant inhale respiration
plant exhale photosynthesis
E is released when _ ______ are broken C bonds
human produce _______ ______ rather than ethanol after exercising and losing O2 thru anaerobic ferm. lactic acid
krebs cycle C are being cycled around
increasing input inc. reaction
decreasing input dec. reaction
increasing output dec reaction
decreasing output inc. reaction
inc. input makes reaction go ______ than just dec. output which also inc. reaction faster
1. glycolysis process glycolysis----->Krebs cycle----->cytochrome system---->36 ATP + O2 & H2O
2. glycolysis process glycolysis----->anaerobic fermentation----->ethanol
ATP E is difficult to _____ store
young tissue has ______ respiration than _____ ______ higher than older tissue
ethylene gas hormone that makes a bunch of apples start to ripen once one of them has ripened (one apple ruins the bunch)
senescence rotting
when T decreases; respiration will decrease
when freezing T (~32F); respiration will stop
increasing T will _______ respiration increase
when T is too hot; respiration will decrease as tissue deteriorates
when oxygen decreases; respiration will decrease------> anaerobic respiration (produces ethanol/alcohol)
when carbon dioxide increases; respiration will decreases
wounded or damaged tissue has a ________ respiration rate than healthier tissue higher
dry tissue has _______ respiration rate decreased
MAP---modified atmo. packaging sealed salad; just enough O2 to slow down respiration & avoid anaerobic resp.
where does light reaction occur grana of chloroplast
where does dark reaction occur stroma of chloroplast
inputs of light reaction light and water
output of light reaction oxygen
inputs of dark reaction carbon dioxide
output of dark reaction carbohydrate
dark reaction only occurs when light reaction occurs (so both really need light)
where does glycolysis occur cytosol of cytoplasm
input of glycolysis carb (glucose)
output of glycolysis metabolic energy (ATP)
where does anaerobic ferm. occur cytosol of cytoplasm
output of anaerobic ferm. CO2, ethanol, some E
where does krebs cycle occur matrix of mitochondria
output of krebs cycle CO2 and metabolic E (ATP)
cytochrome system input O2
ctyochrome system output water, ATP
does the krebs cycle have listed inputs? no
does anaerobic ferm. have listed inputs? no
Created by: daisy1251



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