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HB (Chapt. 7)

Honors Biology

TermDefinition
Cells Basic unit of life.
Cell Theorgy All living things made up of cells, cells are the basic unit of structure & function in living things, & new cells made from existing cells.
Prokaryotic Cells Do not separate their genetic material within a nucleus, will grow, response, respond to environment, & sometimes glide along surfaces or swim through liquids.
Eukaryotic Cells Generally more complex/larger than cells without a nucleus. The nucleus separates the genetic material from rest of cell.
Cytoplasm Aqueous semi-fluid that fills internal space of cells.
Oranelles Specialized organs in cells. Means "little organs".
Nucleus Contains nearly all the cell's DNA, also coded instructions for making proteins & other important molecules. "Brain"
Chromosomes Carry cells genetic information, found in the nucleus, spread throughout nucleus in form of chromatin.
Chromatin A complex of DNA bound to proteins. "Uncoiled DNA"
Nucleous Small dense region in nuclei. It assembles ribosomes.
Vacuoles Large, sac-like membrane enclosed structures that store materials (water, salts, proteins, & carbs.
Lysosomes Small organelles filled with enzymes that break down lipids, carbs, & proteins into smaller molecules.
Lysosomes Small organelles involved with breaking down organelles that have "outlived/junk" their usefulness.
Cytoskeleton Protein filaments that gives eukaryotic cells shape & internal organization and helps with cell movement.
Cytoskeleton Helps to transport materials between different parts of the cells. Made up of microfilaments and microtubules.
Microfilaments Threadlike structures made up a protein called actin.
Microfilaments Form extensive networks in some cells & produce a tough flexible framework that supports cells and help cell move.
Microtubules Hollow structures made up of proteins known as tubulins.
Microtubules Play critical roles in maintaining cell shape, cell division, form structure called mitotic spindle
Mitotic spindle Helps separate chromosomes.
Centrioles In animal cells, microtubules are also called _________.
Centioles Located near the nucleus & help organize cell division. These structures are not found in plant cells.
Ribosomes Small particles of RNA,. The proteins are assembled in ribosomes. Produces protein on orders following coded instructions that come from DNA.
Proteins Are found throughout the cytoplasm and are assembled in ribosomes and are produced by Golgi Apparatus.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Where lipid components of cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins & other materials that are exported from cells. Also found in Eukaryotic cells.
Cell Membrane Thin flexible barrier that separated intercelluar space from external environment, mostly lipids.
Golgi Apparatus Found in eukaryotic cells. Receives materials from ER and send them to other parts of the cell.
Golgi Apparatus Place where proteins are produced, received, modified and shipped.
Chloroplasts Found in plants & other organisms. Biological equivalents of solar power plants.
Chloroplasts Capture energy from sunlight "photosynthesis". Inside contains large stacks of membranes, contain green pigments called chlorophyll.
Mitochondria Power plants of cell that convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for cell to use.
Mitochondria Has two membranes - outer & inner membranes. This structure helps with cellular respiration.
Cell Wall Mostly found in prokaryotes and plant cells. Produces strong supporting layer around membrane. Main function is support, shape, and protects the cells. The membrane is porous.
Lipid Bilayer Gives cell membrane a flexible structure that form strong barrier (protection/support) between cells & surrounding membrane. Regulates what enters & leaves cells.
Selectively Permeable Some substances can pass across membrane & others cannot.
Nuclear Envelope Double layered membrane barrier that protects DNA.
Nuclear Pores Tiny holes in nuclear envelope that allows certain components to enter & leave nucleus.
Gene Section of DNA that codes for a proteinV
Perixosomes Specialized lysosomes that contains enzymes catalase that break down Hydrogen Oxide.
Cilia Short, hair-like structure that helps with cell or organism movement.
Flagella Long, whip-like structure that helps with cell or organism movement.
Protein synthesis Links amino acids to make proteins.
Transport Vesicles Carries protein from RER to Golgi, from Golgi to other parts of cell or from Golgi to cell membrane to be expelled from cells.
Photosynthesis Plant cells convert energy from sunlight into chemical energy.
Smooth ER Produces lipids, repairs cell membrane & removes toxins.
Centosome Made up of two centroles. Produces microtubules and plays important role during animal division.
Scientist who observed cells from a cork tree using a primitive microscope in 1665. Robert Hooke
Scientist who discovered tiny creatures (protozoa) through a microscope in 1674. Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
Scientist who discovers bacteria which are smaller than protozoa in 1638. Anton
The 3 scientist who proposed the cell theory in mid 1800's. Schleiden, Schwann, & Virchow
Miroscopes Tools that use a variety of magnifying lenses that enables you to view/observe very small things unable to be seen with the naked eye.
List 4 types of microscopes. light microscopes, electron microscopes, TEM, & SEM
Light Microscope Type of microscope where specimen can be seen alive. Usually preserved & affixed to a slide, illuminated from beneath by light source. Has 2 or more lenses to magnify image. Specimens often stained with dyes to see more details.
Electron Microscope Type of microscope that uses beams of electrons focused by magnetic fields to magnify images. Specimens preserved & affixed to slide that must remain in a vacuum.
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) Type of microscope where the specimen's sliced & internal structures can be seen/visible.
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Type of microscope that provides/gives a 3-dimensional view of the external structures.
Created by: tonyvonna1