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chapter 2-bio vocab

atom the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical properties of that element
element a substance that cannot be separated, or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means; all atoms of an element have the same atomic number
compound a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
ion an atom, radical, or molecule that has gained or lost one or two electrons and has a negative positive charge
ionic bond the attractive force between oppositely charged ions, which form when electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
covalent bond a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
molecule a group of atoms that are held together by chemical forces; a molecule is the smallest form of matter that cam exist by itself and retain all of a substance's chemical properties
hydrogen bond the inter molecular force occurring when a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom of one molecle is attracted to two unshared electrons of another molecule
cohesion the force that holds molecules of a single material together
adhesion the attractive force between two bodies of different substances that are in contact with each other
solution a homogeneous mixture throughout which two or more substances are uniformly dispersed
solvent in a solution, the substance in which the solute dissolves
solute in a solution, the substance that dissolves in the solvent
acid any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water; acids turn blue litmus paper red and react with bases and some metals to form salts
base any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water; bases turn red litmus paper blue and react with acids to form salts
pH measurement of acidity; related to free hydrogen ion concentration in solution
monomer molecular subunit of a polymer
polymer a large molecule that is formed by more than 5 monomers, or samll units
carbohydrate a class of molecules that include sugar, starches, and fibers; contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
lipid a fat molecule or a molecule that has similar properties; examples include oils, waxes, and steroids
fatty acid hydrocarbon chain often bonded to glycerol in a lipid
protein an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component in all cells
amino acid a compound of a class of simple organic compounds that contain a carboxylic group and an amino group and that combine to form proteins
nucleic acid an organic compound named either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotide and contain genetic information
chemical reaction process by which substances change into different substances through the breaking and forming of chemical bonds
reactant a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
product a substance that forms in a chemical reaction
bond energy amount of energy needed to break a bond between two particular atoms; of the amount of energy released when a bond forms between two particular atoms
equilibrium in biology, the state that exists when the concentration of a substance is the same throughout the space
activation energy the minimum amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
exothermic a chemical reaction that yields a net release of energy in the form of heat
endothermic chemical reaction that requires a net input of energy
catalyse substance that decreases activation energy and increases reaction rate in a chemical reaction
enzyme a molecule, either protein or RNA, that acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions
substrate a part, substance, or element that lies beneath and supports another part , substance, or element; the reactant in reactions that catalyst by enzymes
Created by: megan_boehl1