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Chapter 2 Terms

Chemistry of Life

element one particular type of atom, and it cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by ordinary or chemical means
atom the smallest basic unit of life
compound a substance made of atoms of different elements bonded together in a certain ratio
ionic bond forms through the electrical force between oppositely charged ions
covalent bond forms when atoms share a pair of electrons
molecule two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
hydrogen bond an attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom, often oxygen or nitrogen
cohesion the attraction among molecules of same substances
adhesion the attraction among molecules of different substances
solution a mixture of substances that is the same throughout- it is a homogeneous mixture
solvent the substance that is present in the greater amount and that dissolves another solution
solute a substance that dissolves in a solvent
acid a compound that release a proton- a hydrogen atom- when it dissolves in water
bases compounds that remove H+ ions from the solution
pH measures the acidity of a solution's H+ ion concentration
monomer each subunit in the complete molecule
polymer a large molecule, or macromolecule, made of monomers bonded together
carbohydrates molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and they include sugars and starches
lipids nonpolar molecules that include fats, oils, and cholesterol
fatty acids chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms
protein a polymer made of monomers called amino acids
amino acids molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
nucleic acids polymers that are made up of monomers called nucleotides`
chemical reactions change substances into different substances by breaking and forming chemical bonds
reactants the substances changes during a chemical reaction
products the substances made by a chemical reaction
bond energy the amount of energy that will break a bond between two atoms
equilibrium reached when both the reactants and products are made at the same rate
activation energy the amount of energy that needs to be absorbed for a chemical reaction to start
exothermic a chemical reaction in which it releases more energy that is absorbs
endothermic a chemical reaction in which it absorbs more energy than it releases
catalyst a substance that decreases the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction and, as a result, also increases the rate of the chemical reaction
enzymes catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
substrates the specific reactants that an enzyme acts on
ion an atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons
Created by: harolds21
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