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BIOL250 (Unit 1)

What are 4 functions of Epithelial Tissue? 1. Provide physical protection 2. Control permeability 3. Provide sensation 4. Produce specialized secretions
Where are exocrine and endocrine glands found? What do they do? They're found in the epithelial tissue. Exocrine glands secrete onto external surfaces while endocrine glands secrete hormones into the interstitial fluid to enter the bloodstream
What is polarity? The presence of structural differences between the apical surface and the base of the epithelial cell
What are the three shapes of epithelial cells? 1. Squamous, 2. Cuboidal 3. Columnar
What are tight junctions? Epithelial cells that line the intestinal tract and form a barrier to isolate the basolateral surfaces and deeper tissues from the lumen
What is an adhesion belt? It locks together the terminal web of neighboring cells to strengthen the apical region and prevent leaks at the tight junctions
What are gap junctions? They permit chemical communication such as the diffusion of ions and small molecules to coordinate actions of adjacent cells
What are desmosomes? They provide firm attachment between neighboring cells by interlocking their cytoskeletons
What type of tissue is the only tissue to provide true movement? Muscle tissue
What are the three types of muscle tissue? 1. Skeletal 2. Cardiac 3. Smooth
What does nervous tissue do? Conducts electrical stimuli to and from the brain
What is the simple squamous epithelium? The body's most delicate type of epithelium which is located where absorption or diffusion takes place
Mesothelium and Endothelium are both types of simple squamous epithelium. What is the difference between them? The mesothelium lines the pericardia, pleural, and peritoneal body cavities, while the endothelium lines the inner surface of the heart and the blood vessels
What is stratified squamous epithelium? It is located in areas of high stress, such as the skin, mouth, and vagina
What is the difference between keratinized stratified squamous epithelium and nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium? Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium has layers packed with keratin for strength and water-resistence, while nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium can resist abrasion but will dry out unless kept moist
What is the difference between simple cuboidal epithelia and stratified cuboidal epithelia? Simple cuboidal epithelia provide protection where secretion or absorption takes place while stratified cuboidal epithelia are located along sweat gland ducts and the mammary glands
What type of epithelium only exists in a stratified type and tolerates repeated cycles of stretching without damage? Transitional epithelium
What does simple columnar epithelia do? Contains microvilli to increase the area for absorption and motile cilia that move substances across the apical surface
What does Pseudostratified columnar epithelium do? It is connected to the basement membrane to help support
What are the only unicellular exocrine glands that secrete mucin to form mucus? Goblet cells
What are the basic components of all connective tissue? 1. Specialized cells 2. Extracellular protein fibers 3. Ground substance which works with extracellular fibers to make a matrix surrounding the cell
What are the three types of connective tissue? 1. Connective tissue proper 2. Fluid connective tissues 3. Supporting connective tissues
What is the matrix? Surrounds connective tissue, transports oxygen, provides support to connective tissue
What type of connective tissue is the least specialized, most commonly found in the body, and makes up the general packing materials? Areolar loose connective tissue
What is the difference between aeriolar connective tissue and adipose tissue? They both perform the same function, but adipose tissue contains more adiposites
What are the characteristics of life? 1. Cells 2. Organization 3. Responsiveness 4. Regulation 5. Growth and development 6. Reproduction 7. Metabolism
What are the processes of life? 1. Respiration 2. Excretion 3. Circulation 4. Digestion
What are the levels of organization? 1. Chemical level 2. Cellular level 3. Tissue level 4. Organ level 5. Organ system level 6. Organism level
What are the smallest units of life? Cells
What are the main types of cells? 1. Muscle 2. Bone 3. Blood 4. Fat 5. Reproductive 6. Cells lining the digestive tract 7. Nerve
What are specialized groups of cells and cell products called? Tissues
What are the major functions of the integumentary system? 1. Protects against environmental hazards 2. helps control body temperature
What are the major functions of the skeletal system? 1. Provides support and protection to tissues 2. Stores minerals 3. Forms blood cells
What are the major functions of the muscular system? 1. Provides support 2. Produces movement 3. Generate heat
What are the major functions of the nervous system? 1. Directs immediate responses to stimuli by coordinating actions of other organ systems
What are the major functions of the endocrine system? 1. Directs long-term changes in other organ systems
What are the major functions of the cardiovascular system? 1. Transports cells and dissolved materials such as nutrients, gases, and wastes through the bloodstream
What are the major functions of the lymphatic system? 1. Defends against infection and disease 2. Returns tissue fluid to the bloodstream
What are the major functions of the respiratory system? 1. Delivers air to sites where gas exchange occurs 2. Produces sound
What are the major functions of the urinary system? 1. Eliminates excess water, salts, and wastes 1. Controls pH balance
What are the major functions of the reproductive system? 1. Produces sex cells and hormones 2. Supports embryonic development from fertilization to birth
What three components are needed for homeostatic regulation? 1. A receptor to sense environmental change 2. A control center to receive and process information from the receptor 3. An effector that responds to commands from the control center and implements change
What is the difference between negative and positive feedback? Negative changes a stimulus that needs changing while positive feedback accelerates a process to completion
What is cellular differentiation? The process by which a single cell can split into more different and specialized cells
What is the biggest cause of cell death? Loss of homeostasis
What does a peroxisome do? 1. Breaks down organic compounds 2. Neutralizes toxic compounds
What does a lysosome do? 1. Uses its digestive juice to surround and dissolve damaged organelles and pathogens
What do microvilli do? 1. Extend the membrane surface to absorb more extracellular materials
What does the golgi apparatus do? 1. Stores, altars, and packages synthesized products
What does the nucleus do? 1. Controls metabolism 2. Processes genetic information 3. Controls protein synthesis
What does the smooth endoplasmic reticulum do? 1. Synthesizes lipids and carbohydrates
What does the rough endoplasmic reticulum do? 1. Modifies and packages newly synthesized proteins
What do ribosomes do? 1. Protein synthesis
What does the cytoskeleton do? 1. Strengthens and supports cell 2. Aids in movement of cellular structures and materials
What is the plasma membrane? A semipermeable barrier that surrounds the cell and controls the entry of ions and nutrients and the release of secretions
What are anchoring proteins? Stabilize the cell by anchoring the plasma membrane to other structures and binding to the cytoskeleton
What are recognition proteins? Proteins detected by cells of the immune system
What are enzymes? Integral or peripheral proteins in the plasma membrane
What are receptor proteins? They bind to ligands to affect the cell's activity
What are channels? Integral proteins with a central pore that permits the passage of water and small solutes
What is a cellular mutation? Permanent changes in a cell's DNA that affect the nucleotide sequence of one or more genes
DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid
RNA: Ribonucleic Acid
What is a nucleotide? A small, repeating molecular unit found in DNA
What makes up nucleotides? 5 Carbon sugar molecules, a phosphate group, and 1 of 4 nitrogen bases
What are the nitrogen bases? Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine
What do the nitrogen bases do? They connect to their chemical opposite (Adenine to thymine, Cytosine to Guanine)
What is the difference between RNA and DNA? 1. RNA is a single-stranded molecule while DNA has a double helix 2. The sugar in RNA is ribose which has one more oxygen atom than deoxyribose 3. RNA has a uracil base instead of thymine
What does the enzyme Helicase do? It unzips your genes, so that the two strands can be used to create two double helixes
What does the RNA Primase do? Lays down opposite nitrogen bases on the unzipped genes
What is transcription? It is the process by which genetic instructions on a strand of RNA are encoded
What is translation? The process by which polypeptides are built as directed by a strand of messenger RNA
What is diffusion? Passive movement driven by a concentration gradient
What influences the rate of diffusion? 1. Distance 2. Molecule or ion size 3. Temperature 4. Concentration gradient 5. Electrical forces
What is osmosis? Diffusion... but with water
What is osmotic flow? The movement of water driven by initial differences in solute concentration
What is osmotic pressure? An indication of the force with which pure water moves into that solution as a result of the solute concentration
What is hydrostatic pressure? Generated by pushing against a fluid
What is osmolarity (osmotic concentration)? What is it also called? The total solute concentration in a solution made of water. Tonicity.
What is an isotonic solution? Does not cause an osmotic flow
What is a hypotonic solution? Causes water to flow into the cell, causing the cell to swell and burst
What is a hypertonic solution? Causes water to flow out of the cell, which then shrinks and dehydrates
What is hemolysis? The swelling and eventual bursting of red blood cells when placed in a hypotonic solution
What is crenation? The shrinking of a red blood cell in a hypertonic solution?
What is carrier-mediated transport? The carrier-mediated transport of nutrients that are too large to fit in the membrane channels
What kind of proteins transport nutrients in carrier-mediated transport? Carrier proteins
What is cotransport? The transport of more than one substance in the same direction
What is countertransport? The transport of more than one substance in opposite directions
What kind of carrier protein assists in countertransport? Exchange pump
What is facilitated diffusion? Nutrients are passively transported with the help of carrier proteins, but no expenditure of ATP
What is active transport? Energy is provided by ATP to ion pumps, which transport substances such as sodium and potassium
What is secondary active transport? The movement of nutrients through ion pumps that does not require ATP during transport because it follows the concentration gradient, but loses ATP with the loss of glucose molecules
What is vesicular transport? Transport of nutrients using vesicles known as endosomes
What is endocytosis? Vesicular transport which imports extracellular substances through vesicle formation on the cell surface
What is receptor-mediated endocytosis? The process by which receptors bind to ligands, enter the membrane in pockets, and release them into the cell's cytoplasm
What is pinocytosis? The formation of endosomes filled with extracellular fluid
What is phagocytosis? The production of phagosomes, solid objects, by specialized cells
What is exocytosis? A vesicle that collects wastes and secretory products and expels them outside the cell
What are osteocytes? Cells that support bone
What are osteoblasts? Cells in a nucleus that build bone
What are the four types of connective tissue? 1. Cartilage 2. Bone/blood 3. Fat 4. Ligaments
What are the three types of bonds? 1. Covalent 2. Hydrogen 3. Ionic
What is metastasis? Tumor growth is accelerated by the growth of blood vessels caused by abnormally-dividing cells releasing nutrients
What is a neoplasm? A tumor
What are the four stages of interphase? 1. G0 2. G1 3. S 4. G2
What are the four stages of mitosis? 1. Prophase 2. Metaphase 3. Anaphase 4. Telophase
What happens during prophase? Two chromatids are paired and connected at the centromere. A kinetochore attaches the chromatids to the spindle fibers
What happens during metaphase? Chromatids move to a narrow central zone called the metaphase plate
What is anaphase? The centromere and the chromatids are pulled to opposite sides of the cell by the mitotic spindle
What is telophase? The nuclear envelope and nuclei reform and chromosomes uncoil to the chromatin state
During what phase of Interphase is the DNA replicated? The S Phase
What is cytokinesis? Begins with the formation of the cleavage furrow during anaphase and continues until the end of cell division
What phase of Interphase is the most varied time-wise? What happens during this stage? G0. Cells perform normal cellular functions
During what phase of Interphase is DNA replicated and histones synthesized? The S Phase
What's the difference between membranous and nonmembranous organelles? Membranous organelles are completely isolated, while nonmembranous organelles can have contact with the cytoplasm
Created by: 1145016488915233



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