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Ch, 1

Scientific Method

Define Science Natural world; ex: biology=study of living organisms
Scientific Method=Problem Solving (OHEC) 1) make OBSERVATIONS 2) form HYPOTHESIS (proposing ideas) 3)EXPERIMENT (testing ideas) 4) form a CONCLUSION (discard/modify ideas based on results)
Hypothesis (def: proposed explanation for one or more observations) MUST BE: 1) Testable: possible to evaluate thru measurable universe 2) Falsifiable: potentially false (could be wrong)
Scientific Theory *has been tested *based on well supported hypothesis ex: germ theory, theory of evolution, cell theory
Deductive Reasoning General to specific *Begin w/ general statement/hypothesis which leads to a specific logical conclusion
Inductive Reasoning Specific to general *Logical process that argues from specific instances to general conclusion
The truth of a hypothesis cannot be proven conclusively via deductive reasoning because: There may be alternative reasons for the data collected
Define Variable Factor of experiment that may CHANGE
Independent (experimental) variables *thing you change on purpose; thing you are testing (manipulated by the researcher)
Dependent (response) variables *data collecting; thing you are measuring (not changed by the researcher, may change during experiment *observable effects can be measured
Control in Experimental method *One independent variable; stay the same *control group needed to compare to *EVERYTHING ELSE REMAINS THE SAME
Strategies to minimize bias designing experiments Bias: influence on results Blind Studies: limit participant knowledge Double blind studies: limit researcher knowledge of participant groups
Created by: monieluvfitness