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Unit 1 ch 2

Matter occupies space and possesses rest mass, especially as distinct from energy.
Element A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances
Compound A substance consisting of atoms or ions of two or more elements that are chemically bonded together,
Atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom
Atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Mass number the total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.
Atomic mass the mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units.
Isotopes Different forms of the same element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
Radioactive isotope An isotope having an unstable nucleus that decomposes spontaneously
Energy Capacity to cause change
Potential energy Energy that matter possesses Bc of its location or structure
Electron shells A characteristic average distance and energy level
Valence electrons Outer electrons
Valence shell Outermost electron shell
Chemical bond Attractions
Covalent bond Sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms
Molecule Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Single bond A pair of shared electrons
Double bonds O = O
Valence the combining power of an element
Electronegativity The attraction of a particular atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
Nonpolar covalent bond Electrons are shared equally
Polar covalent bond Electrons are not shared equally
Ion A charged atom
Cation Positive charged atom
Anion Negatively charged atom
Ionic bond Oppositely charged bonds
Ionic compound Compounds formed by ionic bonds
Hydrogen bond Noncovalent attraction between a hydrogen and an electronegative atom
Chemical reactions Making and breaking of chemical bonds, leading to changes in the composition of matter
Polar molecule Charge is unevenly distributed (uneven electron charge)
Cohesion Hydrogen bonds hold the substance together
Adhesion Sticking of one substance to another
Surface tension How hard it is to break the surface area
Kinetic energy Anything that moves, energy of motion
Hydration shell Sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion
Hydrophilic Likes water
Hydrophobic To repel water
Created by: Lohi