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Biology

Biology vocab & notes quiz

TermDefinition
Daughter Cells the two cells that result from cell division
Asexual reproduction reproduction that involves a single parent producing an offspring which in most cases, is genetically identical to the single cell that produced them
Sexual reproduction offspring are produced by the fusion of two cells - one from each of two parents that fuse into a single cell before the offspring can grow
Cell cycle a series of events that takes place from one cell division to the next
Interphase the time during the cell cycle between cell division
Chromosome a structure in the nucleus which contains hereditary material that duplicates during interphase
Chromatid each strand of a duplicated chromosome
Centromere the area where each pair of chromatids is joined
Centrioles tiny structures located in cytoplasm of animal cells that help organize the spindle
Spindle a fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromatids
Mitosis the process in which the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei
Prophase when the nucleus prepares to divide
Metaphase when the pairs of chromatids line up across the middle of the cell
Anaphase the spindle fibers shorten and each pair of chromatids begin to move apart
Telophase the spindle fibers start to disappear, the chromosomes start to uncoil, and two nuclei form
Cytokinesis the cell membrane pinches in the middle and the cytoplasm divides
Binary fission a form of asexual reproduction during which two genetically identical cells are produced
Internal regulators proteins that respond to events inside a cell. They allow the cell cycle to proceed only once certain processes have happened inside the cell.
External regulators proteins that respond to event outside the cell. They direct cells to speed up or slow down the cell cycle.
growth factors external regulators that stimulate the growth and division of cells. They are important during embryonic development and wound healing.
daughter; cell division Before a cell grows too large, it divides into two new ___________ cells in a process called _____ _________.
Cell Division _____ _________ allows growth, replaced worn out or damaged cells, and sometimes produces an entire new organism.
Multicellular ______________ organisms grow because cell division increases the total number of cells in an organism.
Unicellular ____________ organisms produce an entire new organism by cell division which is known as asexual reproduction.
asexually Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic single-celled organisms and many multicellular organisms can reproduce ___________.
sexually Most animals and plants, and many single-celled organisms, reproduce __________.
Interphase, Mitosis, Cytokinesis Cell Cycle:
Interphase During ___________ a copy of the hereditary material must be made so that each of the two daughter cells will get a complete copy but no division takes place.
chromosomes The genetic information that is passed on from one generation of cells to the next is carried by _____________.
prokaryotes Most ____________ contain a single, circular DNA molecule, or chromosome, that contains most of the cell's genetic information.
eukaryotic In ____________ cells, chromosomes are located in the nucleus, and are made up of chromatin.
chromatids When the nucleus is ready to divide, each duplicated chromosome coils tightly into two thickened, identical strands called ____________.
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase The phases of mitosis in order are:
centrioles Two small structures called _____________ move to opposite ends of the cell and threadlike spindle fibers begin to stretch across the cell.
centromere The ____________ of each pair usually becomes attached to two spindle fibers, one from each side of the cell.
chromosomes Separated chromatids during anaphase are now called ______________.
cytoplasm After the nucleus has divided, the _____________ separates and two new cells are formed.
binary fission When DNA replication is complete, the cells divide through a process known as ________ _________.
Cancer ___________ cells do not respond to the signals that regulate the growth of most cells and as a result, the cells divide uncontrollably into a mass of cells called a tumor.
malignant A ____________ tumor is cancerous. It invades and destroys surrounding healthy tissue and can spread to other parts of the body.
Created by: VickieJ10