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Chapter 17


Blood: a fluid connective tissue composed of Plasma :liquid portion
Erythrocytes Red Blood Cells
Leukocytes White Blood Cells
Hematocrit Percent of blood volume that is RBCs
what is the percentage of RBC in Males 47%
what is the percentage of RBC in Females 42%
Physical Characteristics of blood Sticky, opaque fluid Color scarlet to dark red pH 7.35–7.45
Tempature of blood and percentage of body weight ? 38 C and 8 % of body weight
Average volume of blood in males and females ? Males 5-6 L and Females 4-5 L
What are the functions of blood ? Distribution of blood O2 and nutrients to body cells Metabolic wastes to the lungs and kidneys for elimination Hormones from endocrine organs to target organs
What are blood regulations ? Regulation of blood Body temperature by absorbing and distributing heat Normal pH using buffers Adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system
What does blood protect ? Protection against Blood loss Plasma proteins and platelets initiate clot formation Infection Antibodies Complement proteins WBCs defend against foreign invaders
What is 90% of water and its Proteins are mostly produced by the liver & are the most abundant solutes ( 8% by wt ) in the plasma. Blood Plasma
What is the percentage of albumin in blood plasma ? 60%
Blood plasma has _________ _________of metabolism—lactic acid, urea, creatinine Nitrogenous by-products
Blood Plasma has ____________—glucose, carbohydrates, amino acids Electrolytes—Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl–, HCO3– Respiratory gases—O2 and CO2 Hormones Nutrients
Only _______are complete cells White Blood Cells
_________have no nuclei or organelles Red Blood Cells
__________are cell fragments Platelets
Most blood cells originate in what and do not divide ? Bone Marrow
What are biconcave discs, anucleate, essentially no organelles and Filled with hemoglobin (Hb) for gas transport Erythrocytes
Erythrocytes contain the plasma membrane protein _______and other proteins,Which Provide flexibility to change shape as necessary. spectrin
Erythrocytes are the major factor contributing to blood viscosity
Structural characteristics contribute to gas transport Biconcave shape—huge surface area relative to volume >97% hemoglobin (not counting water) Erythrocytes
What are the fuctions of Erythocytes ? RBCs are dedicated to respiratory gas transport
Hemoglobin binds reversibly with what ? Oxygen
What is the hemoglobin structure of Erythocytes ? Protein globin: two alpha and two beta chains Heme pigment bonded to each globin chain
Each Hb molecule can transport four O2 and 1 billion RBC
O2 loading in the lungs Produces what ? Oxyhemoglobin (Ruby red)
O2 unloading in the tissues produces what ? deoxyhemoglobin or reduced hemoglobin (dark red)
CO2 loading in the tissues Produces _____________(carries 20% of CO2 in the blood) carbaminohemoglobin
What is the process of blood cell formation and Occurs in red bone marrow of axial skeleton, girdles and proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur Hematopoiesis
What gives rise to all formed elements Hormones and growth factors push the cell toward a specific pathway of blood cell development Hemocytoblasts
red blood cell production is known as Erythropoiesis
A hemocytoblast is transformed into a proerythroblast
Proerythroblasts develop into early early erythroblasts
Erythropoiesis phases in development 1.Ribosome synthesis 2.Hemoglobin accumulation 3.Ejection of the nucleus and formation of reticulocytes
Too few RBCs leads to tissue hypoxia
Too many RBCs increases blood viscosity
Balance between RBC production and destruction depends on Hormonal controls Adequate supplies of iron, amino acids, and B vitamins
This substance is a direct stimulus for erythropoiesis Released by the kidneys in response to hypoxia ? Erythropoietin
Causes of hypoxia Hemorrhage or increased RBC destruction reduces RBC numbers Insufficient hemoglobin (e.g., iron deficiency) Reduced availability of O2 (e.g., high altitudes
Effects of EPO More rapid maturation of committed bone marrow cells Increased circulating reticulocyte count in 1–2 days
Testosterone also enhances EPO production, resulting in higher ____counts in males RBC
Life span of erythocyctes : Old RBCs become fragile, and Hb begins to degenerate 100–120 days
Heme and globin are Separated
What is salvaged for reuse ? Iron
Heme is degraded to yellow the pigment bilirubin
the body in feces as stercobilin
Globin is metabolized into amino acids
Blood has abnormally low O2-carrying capacity and is accompanied by fatigue, paleness, shortness of breath, and chills is known as ? Anemia
Deficiency of vitamin B12 Lack of intrinsic factor needed for absorption of B12 Treated by intramuscular injection of B12 or application of Nascobal Pernicious anemia
Absent or faulty globin chain RBCs are thin, delicate, and deficient in hemoglobin Thalassemias
Defective gene codes for abnormal hemoglobin (HbS) Causes RBCs to become sickle shaped in low-oxygen situations Sickle-cell anemia
excess of RBCs that increase blood viscosity Polycythemia
Results from: Polycythemia vera—bone marrow cancer Secondary polycythemia—when less O2 is available (high altitude) or when EPO production increases Blood doping Polycythemia
What makes up <1% of total blood volume Can leave capillaries via diapedesis Move through tissue spaces by ameboid motion and positive chemotaxis Leukocytes
what has WBC count over 11,000/mm3 Normal response to bacterial or viral invasion Leukocytosis
What are neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils Granulocytes
what has the most numerous WBCs Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) Fine granules take up both acidic and basic dyes Give the cytoplasm a lilac color Granules contain hydrolytic enzymes or defensins Very phagocytic—“bacteria slayers” neutrophils
What is Red-staining, bilobed nuclei Red to crimson (acidophilic) coarse, lysosome-like granules Digest parasitic worms that are too large to be phagocytized eosinophils
Rarest WBCs Large, purplish-black (basophilic) granules contain histamine Basophils
an inflammatory chemical that acts as a vasodilator and attracts other WBCs to inflamed sites Histamine
lymphocytes and monocytes Lack visible cytoplasmic granules Have spherical or kidney-shaped nuclei Agranulocytes
Large, dark-purple, circular nuclei with a thin rim of blue cytoplasm Mostly in lymphoid tissue; few circulate in the blood Crucial to immunity Lymphocytes
act against virus-infected cells and tumor cells T-Cells
give rise to plasma cells, which produce antibodies B-Cells
The largest leukocytes Abundant pale-blue cytoplasm Dark purple-staining, U- or kidney-shaped nuclei Monocyte
Leave circulation, enter tissues, and differentiate into macrophages Monocytes
Actively ________________; crucial against viruses, intracellular bacterial parasites, and chronic infections phagocytic cells
Monocytes activate ____________to mount an immune response lymphocytes
The Production of WBCs Stimulated by chemical messengers from bone marrow and mature WBCs Leukopoiesis
Abnormally low WBC count—drug induced Leukopenia
Bone marrow totally occupied with cancerous leukocytes Immature nonfunctional WBCs in the bloodstream Death caused by internal hemorrhage and overwhelming infections Leukemia
Small fragments of megakaryocytes Formation is regulated by thrombopoietin Platelets
Form a temporary platelet plug that helps seal breaks in blood vessels Circulating platelets are kept inactive and mobile by NO and prostacyclin from endothelial cells of blood vessels Platelets
Infectious mononucleosis: highly contagious viral disease. Etiology Epstein-Barr virus. The hallmark of this disease is excessive numbers of agranulocytes. Symptoms include fatigue, chronic sore throat, low-grade fever, general malaise. Mono
Fast series of reactions for stoppage of bleeding 1.Vascular spasm 2.Platelet plug formation 3.Coagulation (blood clotting)
Platelet Plug Formation: Positive Feedback Cycle At site of blood vessel injury, platelets Stick to exposed collagen fibers with the help of von Willebrand factor, a plasma protein Swell, become spiked and sticky, and release chemical messengers
Normally platelets do not stick together or to endothelial lining.
Intact endothelial lining releases __________preventing platelet aggregation. (prostacyclin). Chemicals
When endothelial lining is damaged, ___________ are exposed and platelet stick to this tenaciously collagen fibers
All blood clotting factors normally circulate in the blood in the inactive form until mobilized
A set of reactions in which blood is transformed from a liquid to a gel Coagulation
Coagulation reinforces the platelet plug with fibrin threads
what are the three phases of coagulation 1.Prothrombin activator is formed (intrinsic and extrinsic pathways) 2.Prothrombin is converted into thrombin 3.Thrombin catalyzes the soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin mesh.
Is triggered by negatively charged surfaces (activated platelets, collagen, glass) Uses factors present within the blood (intrinsic) Intrinsic pathway
Is triggered by exposure to tissue factor (TF) or factor III (an extrinsic factor) Bypasses several steps of the intrinsic pathway, so is faster Extrinsic pathway
Prothrombin activator catalyzes the transformation of prothrombin to the active enzyme thrombin
Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin
Actin and myosin in platelets contract within 30–60 minutes
stimulates division of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts to rebuild blood vessel wall Platelet-derived growth factor
stimulates endothelial cells to multiply and restore the endothelial lining Vascular endothelial growth factor
Begins within two days Plasminogen in a clot is converted to plasmin by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), factor XII and thrombin
Plasmin is a fibrin-digesting enzyme
clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel May block circulation, leading to tissue death Thrombus
a thrombus freely floating in the blood stream Embolus
deficient number of circulating platelets Petechiae appear due to spontaneous, widespread hemorrhage Due to suppression or destruction of bone marrow (e.g., malignancy, radiation) Thrombocytopenia
Humans have ____ varieties of naturally occurring RBC antigens 30
When serum containing anti-A or anti-B agglutinins (antibodies) is added to blood, agglutination will occur between the agglutinin and the corresponding agglutinogens(antigens)
Created by: jennysevere24