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Chapter 1 Vocab

Insulin A protein that facilitates the uptake of sugar into cells from blood
Biotechnology The study and manipulation of living things or their component molecules, cells, tissues, or organs
DNA Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, a double-stranded helical molecule that stores genetic information for the production of all of an organisms proteins
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology cutting and recombining DNA molecules
Cloning A method of asexual reproduction that produces identical organisms.
Fermentation A process by which, in an oxygen-deprived environment, a cell converts sugar into lactic acid or ethanol to create energy
Polymerase Chain Reaction A technique that involves copying short pieces of DNA and then making millions of copies in a short time
Diabetes A disorder affecting the uptake of sugar by cells due to inadequate insulin production or ineffective use of insulin
Proteases Proteins whose function is to break down other proteins
Antibodies Proteins developed by the immune system that recognize specific molecules (anigens)
Pharmaceutical Relating to drugs developed for medical use
Research and Development The early stages in product development that include discovery product and initial small-scale production
Pure Science Scientific research whose main purpose is to enrich the scientific knowledge base
Virus A particle containing a protein coat and genetic material (either DNA or RNA) that is not living and requires a host to replicate
Applied Science The practice of utilizing scientific knowledge for practical purposesn, including the manufacture of a product
NIH Abbreviation for National Institutes of Health; the federal agency that funds and conducts biomedical research
CDC Abbreviation for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; the national research center for developing and applying disease prevention and control, environmental health, and health promotion and education activities to improve public health
DNA fingerprinting An experimental technique that is commonly used to identify individuals by distinguishing their unique DNA code
Antibiotics Molecular agents derived from fubgi and/or bacteria that impede the growth and survival of some other microorganisms
Restriction Enzyme An enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence
DNA Ligase An enzyme that binds together disconnected strands of a DNA molecule
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) Organisms that contain DNA from another organism and produce new proteins encoded on the acquired DNA
E. Coli A rod shaped bacterium native to the intestines of mammals; commonly used in genetics and biotechnology
Plasmid A tiny, circular piece of DNA, usually of bacterial origin; often used in recombinant DNA technologies
T-PA Short for tissue plasminogen activator; one of the first genetically engineered products to be sold; a naturally occuring enzyme that breaks down blood clots and clears blocked blood vessels
Human Genome Project An international effort to sequence and map all the DNA on the 23 human chromosomes
Reagent A chemical used in an experiment
Efficacy The ability to yield a desired result or demonstrate that a product does what it claims to do
Large Scale Production The manufacturing of large volumes of a product
Clinical Trials A strict series of tests that evaluates the effectiveness and safety of a medical treatment in humans
FDA Abbreviation for the Food and Drug Administration; the federal agency that regulates the use and production of food, feed, food additives, veterinary drugs, human drugs, and medical devices
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) A genetic disorder that clogs the respiratory and digestive systems with mucus
Therapeutic An agent that is used to treat diseases or disorders
EPA Abbreviation for the Environmental Protection Agency; the federal agency that enforces environmental laws including the use and production of microorganisms, herbicides, and genetically modified microorganisms.
USDA Abbreviation for United States Department of Agriculture; the federal agency that regulates the use and production of plants, plant products, plant pens, veterinary supplies and medication, and genetically modified plants and animals
Data Information gathered from experimentation
Observation Information or data collected when subject is watched
Hypothesis An educated guess to answer a scientific question; should be testable
Variable Anything that can vary in an experiment to see its effect on dependent variables
Control An experimental trial added to an experiment to ensure that the experiment was run properly
Positive control A group of data that will give predictable positive results
Negative Control A group of data lacking what is being tested so as to give expected negative results
Concentration The amount of a substance as a proportion of another substance; usually how much mass in some amount of volume
Journals Scientific periodicals or magazines in which scientists publish their experimental work, findings, or conclusions
Genome One entire set of an organisms genetic material (from a single cell)
Biochemistry The study of the chemical reactions occuring in living things
Molecular biology The study of molecules that are found in cells
Genetics The study of genes and how they are inherited and expressed
Moral A conviction or justifiable position, having to do with whether something is considered right or wrong.
Ethics The study of moral standards and how the affect conducts
Bioethics The study of decision-making as it applies to moral decisions that have to be made because of advances in biology, medicine, and technology
Microbial Agents Synonym for microorganisms, living things too small to be seen without the aid of a microscope; includes bacteria, most algae, many fungi
Created by: Wallaby