Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how


True or False. Microorganisms are in untreated water, food, air, on our skin and hair and in our intestinal tracts. True
How are microorganisms helpful in food? They are part of the cheese making process.
True or False. Only type of microorganism exist. False. Just like plant seeds, there are many kinds of microorganisms, each with a different effect
The unit of measurement "Micron" is used to measure bacteria; bacteria is about how many microns? 1 or 2
What are the parts of a typical cell? Cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, capsule, flagella and nucleus.
Are viruses smaller or larger than bacteria? smaller
What are the three main shapes of bacteria? Cocci (round), Bacillus (rods) and Spirillum(spiral).
How can bacteria be classified? Visual color
What two staining processes are important to SPD? Gram stain and the Ziehl-Neilson stain
What are the two groups Gram Stain divides bacteria? Gram-positive and gram-negative
What is gram-positive? It's bacteria that turns purple when stained. It keeps its color when a decolorizer is applied.
What is gram-negative? It's a bacteria that turns purple when stained but looses it's color when a decolorizer is applied. When the 2nd stain is applied ( red) it then turns red.
Describe the Ziehl-Neilson stain It identifies acid-fast bacteria (bacteria that stains fast/ easily).
Describe acid fast red stain and nonacid-fast blue stain When stained red, the bacteria retains the color red even after a decolorizer is applied they are called "acid-fast". When the color is loss after being stained red; and a second stain is applied (blue) the bacteria is considered "nonacid-fast".
How can cells protect themselves? They form a spore: a thick layer around the nucleus. Spores are hard to kill and are a direct problem for Sterile Processing.
What are the common ways to identify and classify microorganisms? By shape, color change and need for oxygen.
Some bacteria require oxygen to grown; they are aerobic bacteria. What bacteria does not require oxygen? Anaerobic
What are the 3 temperature requirements for bacteria? Psychrophiles, Mesophiles &Thermophiles
True of False: Microorganisms that can cause disease to humans have a pH range the same as human blood. 7-7.8 True
Why do hospitals use Ultraviolet light? Ultraviolet light can kill the spore of gram-positive Bacilli
Name 3 non-bacterial organisms. Viruses, fungi and protozoa
Viruses are ____________ times_____________ than bacteria. 1,000 / smaller
What does a virus do once it enters a plant or animal? Reproduce, destroys the cell and move on to another cell.
How can viruses become mobile? Animals, air, water, insect and humans
How is Hepatitis B, C, D & E transmitted? Body fluids
How is Hepatitis A transmitted? Food-borne illness
How long can Herpes virus survive on plastic, on a cotton gauze? 8 hours, 72 hours
West Nile virus is carried by mosquitoes from bird to people but it is also transmitted from organ donor to ____________________. Oran recipient.
There are 5 categories of Microorganisms according to Steris University. What are they? Bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoa and prions
Name four characteristics of microorganisms cell structure, DNA, means of reproduction and size
What measurement is used to measure Bacteria and cells? Inches, millimeters, centimeters or microns? Microns
Bacteria is between ____ or ___ microns. 1 or 2
Which is smaller, bacteria or viruses? Viruses
What are the components of a typical cell? Cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, capsule, flagella and nucleus.
Describe a cell wall. Keeps cell structure because it's tough.
Describe the cell's membrane. Semi-permeable and allows gasses and liquids to pass in and out of cell. It's just under the cell wall.
Describe the cell's cytoplasm. This is where chemical reactions and protein processes are conducted. It has been describe as the white of an egg.
Describe the cell's capsule. It protects the cell from being destroyed. Just like our white blood cells destroy bacteria in our bodies.
Describe the cell's flagella. Tails that gives the cell the ability to move through liquids.
Describe the cell's nucleus. It controls the cells, growth food usage and the making of new cell components. Here is where the DNA lives.
True or false. The bacteria nucleus has a nuclear membrane enclosing the DNA. False. The bacteria nucleus does not have a membrane that encloses the DNA. It floats without restrictions.
True or false. Plants and animals chromosomes are enclosed in a nuclear membrane. True.
How can cells protect themselves in a hostile environment. Creating a thick oat around the nucleus; a spore. Making it hard to kill.
True or false. Mesophiles like to grow at body temperature. True
Why would ultraviolet lights be used in the Operating Room; in regards to bacteria? Ultraviolet light and sunlight kill bacteria by breaking the nuclear DNA. Ultraviolet light can disinfect air and purify the environment.
A virus has no way to move, they rely on air, water, insects, humans and or _______ to carry it from host to host. animals. Viruses can live outside the host on a scab, in blood or body waste for hours or days.
Herpes simplex is a Fungi, Protozoa or virus? Virus
Can Tuberculosis survive for years in a dry state ? Yes
What are the two common stains used to identify bacterial? Gram stain and Ziehl-Neelson stain a.k.a Acid Fast
What color are Gram Positive bacteria? Purple
What color are Gram Negative bacteria? Red
Between Gram Positive and Gram Negative bacteria, which has a thick cell wall and which has a thin cell wall? Gram Positive: thick wall Gram Negative: thin wall
The Gram Stain process includes 1. the primary stain 2. decolorize 3. _________ The counter or secondary stain.
In Gram Stain, which bacteria (positive or negative) retains the primary stain and which looses the primary color during the de-colorization process? Gram Positive bacteria retains the primary stain. Gram Negative bacteria looses it's color during the de-colorization process and takes on the secondary color or counter stain.
In the Ziehl-Neilson Stain, which bacteria retains the primary stain? Acid fast-Red or Non-acid fast- blue? Acid fast - Red
What color is Acid fast bacteria and non-acid fast? Red; Blue
True or False. Gram stain helps identify infectious disease such as tuberculosis and leprosy. False. Acid fast testing helps identify tuberculosis and leprosy.
Who was Ziehl-Neilson? Fraz Ziehl (1854-1898) a bacteriologist and Friedrich Neelson (1859-1926) a pathologist.
What are the six links in the "Chain of Infection"? 1. Causative agent 2. Reservoir of the agent 3. Portal of exit of the agent from the reservoir 4. Mode of Transmission of the agent 5. Portal of entry into the host 6. Susceptible host
Infectious disease (agent) need a reservoir to grow, live and multiply. What are three common reservoirs for this to happen? Humans, animals and the environment
It's important for an infectious disease to have a reservoir, mode of transmission and susceptible host. Name 4 modes of transmission. 1. Direct contact 2. Common vehicle 3. Airborne 4. Vector borne.
Reservoir+Agent+Mode of Transmission+Susceptible host= Chain of infection (CDC Atlanta: U.S. Department of Human Services; 1992)
Causative agents are capable of causing disease; such as bacterium, virus, fungi or parasites. It is important for either of them to have 6 things to cause infection. What are they? 1.Virulence (able to multiply and grow) 2. Invasiveness (able to enter tissue) 3. Pathogenicity (able to cause disease). 4. Ability (able to resist antibiotics) 5. Infection dose (amount required to cause disease) 6. Viability (survive outside host)
True or False. Viruses are sensitive to antibiotics False. Bacteria is sensitive to antibiotics
What are examples of Direct contact in the case of Mode of Transmission? Kissing and or touching
When talking about "Mode of Transmission" What are examples of Common vehicle? Food, blood and water
What are examples of Airborne as it relates to "Mode of Transmission? Droplets or dust remaining in the air.
What is a Vector and how does it spread disease? An organism like a insect, that transmits a pathogen possibly from a bite.
Portal of exit is how the agent leaves the reservoir. Name the six. 1. Respiratory tract 2. Genitourinary tract 3. Gastrointestinal tract 5. Skin/ mucous membrane 6. Transplacental
A susceptible host is a person or animal that may have a hard time fighting disease and or infection. What 5 things that can make a person or animal vulnerable? 1. Age 2. Injury 3. Weak immune system 4. History of disease (diabetes) 5. Under nourished
Created by: Eyeonspd



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards