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Bolvin-L1BioCh8

Vocab review for Chapter 8

QuestionAnswer
photosynthesis reaction that changes sunlight, carbon dioxide and water into chemical energy in the form of glucose
cellular respiration decomposition of carbohydrates into carbon dioxide and water that releases energy
Glycolysis breakdown of glucose in the cytoplasm in cells, its the first step in cellular respiration
Krebs Cycle second part of Cellular respiration that breaks down the product of glycolysis to release more energy.
ATP high energy molecule that has 3 phosphate molecules attached. Common energy currency of all cells
ADP molecule that contains 2 phosphate groups that is used to make adenosine triphosphate
metabolism all the reactions that occur in an organism
thylakoids flattened sac like membranes arranged in stacks in a chloroplast
grana stacks of thylakoids
Calvin cycle light independent reactions of photosynthesis
carbon fixation first step of Calvin Cycle in which CO2 molecules are combined with a 5 carbon compound to make many 3 carbon molecules
Calvin Cycle step 2 Energy from ATP and NADPH transferred to the 3 carbon molecules made in previous step
Calvin Cycle step 3 2 of the 3 carbon molecules leave to make glucose
Calvin Cycle step 4 Rubisco converts the remaining 3 carbon molecules to make 5 carbon molecules to start cycle again
C4 plants plants that use an alternative pathway to photosynthesis , keep their pores (stomata) closed on hot days, occurs in corn and sugar cane
CAM plants process that occurs in water conserving plants such as cacti, pineapple and orchids, CO2 enters only at night where it is fixed into organic compounds to be released during the day
electron transport chain process in which high energy electrons and H+ ions are used to convert ADP to ATP, occurs in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast and the inner membrane of the mitochondria
Fermentation anaerobic respiration that follows glycolysis if O2 is unavailable
lactic acid fermentation Enzymes convert pyruvate from glycolysis into lactic acid
Alcohol fermentation enzymes convert pyruvate from glycolysis into ethyl alcohol
Pyruvate product of glycolysis
Acetyl Co-A pyruvate is changed into this molecule in the mitochondrial matrix so it can enter the Krebs cycle
Created by: abolvin