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Physiology & Fluid D

QuestionAnswer
How much blood is in 1 pump of the heart? 70 ml
What happens in the beginning of cardiac contraction? Pressure in left ventricle rises Exceeds aorta Aortic valve opens Blood is ejected No rises
What is stroke volume? Amount of blood ejected from heart
What happens when the heart rate increases? Increases blood volume
What type is energy is the heart generating pressure to move blood?
Potential Energy
The stroke volume creates what? A pressure wave that travels throughout the arterial system
What changes to the wave as the wave moves through the arterial system? Propagation speed Shape Strength
What is the route of the blood from the heart?
Left ventricle to aorta Aorta to large arteries Large arteries to arterioles Arterioles to capillaries Capillaries to venules Venules to large veins Large veins to vena cava Vena cava to right atrium
What is propagation speed also know as? Pulse wave velocity
As arterial pressure wave moves away from the heart, what happens to the pulse wave velocity? Increases with growing stiffness of arterial wall
What is necessary to maintain blood flow? Pressure gradient
What governs the amount of blood flow that enters the arterial system? Cardiac output
What determines the volume of blood that leaves the arterial system? Arterial pressure Total peripheral resistance
What controls the peripheral resistance? Level of vasoconstriction in microcirculation
What produces the arterial reservoir? Energy created from left ventricular contraction that results in distention of arteries
Where is pressure at it greatest? Heart
What occurs to the pressure as it moves more distally? Decreases
Pressure difference is also known as? Pressure gradient
What are the 2 requirements for the movement of fluid to move between 2 points? 1. A route 2. Difference in pressure levels between the 2 points
The volume of flow depends on what? The difference in pressure (energy) between the 2 points
If you have high resistance, what occurs to flow rate and energy difference? High resistance = 1. Low flow rate 2. Lower the pressure difference
Total energy of moving fluid is the sum of what? Pressure energy Gravitational energy Kinetic energy
What is the main form of energy in flowing blood? Pressure energy
What is kinetic energy? Ability of flowing blood to do work as result of its velocity
Kinetic energy is proportional to what?
Density of blood
What kind of energy is noted as "water behind the dam"? Potential energy
What is gravitational energy also known as? Hydrostatic pressure
What is hydrostatic pressure measured in? mmHg
What does the "height of the dam" represent in energy?
What is the tendency of objects to maintain their status quo with regard to motion Inertia
What does blood lose energy in the form of? Heat
What are small circular currents or swirling patterns of rotational flow? Eddy currents Vortices
What is the acceleration phase of the pulse? Early systole to peak systole
Where is the greatest amount of energy produced in the pulse? Peak systole
What is the deceleration phase of the pulse? Late systole to early diastole
During deceleration phase, what happens to cardiac output and pressure?
What is laminar flow? Blood moves in stable concentric thin layers with slowest flow at walls and faster flow in center
Which type of flow is represented as a "bullet" shape? Parabolic flow
Parabolic flow Plug flow
If the fluid is in a long conduit, what happens to fluid? The fluid is in contact longer with the conduit requiring a higher pressure to maintain flow
At origins of vessels
What has an effect on resistance? Viscosity Vessel length Vessel diameter
1. Fluid 2 Interaction between conduit and fluid
What is flow resistance equation? R=8nL/(pie)r🔼2 Overflow flow resistance = 8(viscosity)(length)/3.1416 (radius to the 2nd power)
Thickness of the blood
What cause energy loss in flowing blood? Friction
Decreases - less freely movable, slowing blood flow
What does the dimensions of blood vessels determine? Smaller the vessel Greater the friction Greater resistance
What is the most dramatic effect on resistance?
What does Poiseuille law defines? Relationship between volume flow, pressure and resistance
What is Poiseuille Law equation?
If the radius of the vessel increases what happens to flow? If Radius increases: Flow rate increases because more room Resistance decreases more open area Velocity decreases
How is velocity related to radius of vessel? Velocity is inversely proportional to radius
Density of blood
What happens to the flow when the flow volume increases too far? Flow disturbance increases forming eddy currents
Gravitational energy
Cardiac output decreases to the point at which outflow through high resistance vessels exceeds the volume ejected from heart
What are the 2 types of laminar flow?
Whwre does plug flow occur?
What does the movement of fluid depend on?
How is friction generated by?
Velocity*denisty*2*radius/viscosity Vp2r/n Reynolds number
Radius of vessel
Q=(P1-P2) (pie)(r🔼2)/8nL
What happens when Reynolds number exceeds 2000? Laminar flow becomes disturbed
What principle shows pressure/velocity relationship? Bernoulli principle
What is the pressure and velocity like in a stenotic segment? Pressure decreases Velocity increases
Velocity and pressure inversely related
What is the Bernoulli principle?
What happens to potential and kinetic energy proximal to stenosis? Potential energy is higher Kinetic energy is lower Total energy sum is highest
What changes the flow separation in a vessel? Changes in vessel geometry Direction of vessel
What describes pressure gradients? Flow seperations
What occurs to energy distal to a stenosis?
What occurs during systole and diastole on color flow box at site of flow seperation? Systole- flow reversal Diastole- no color flow
Differences in pressure between 2 points in a vessel
High pressure energy Low velocity
How do you determine whether you are in systole or diastole with color flow? Look for flow separation areas
Steady flow- steady driving pressure Pulsatile flow- changes in driving pressure
Higher pressure energy Lower kinetic energy Highest total sum energy
What is pressure gradients
What occurs in pressure energy and velocity to show a flow seperation?
What is the difference between steady and pulsatile flow?
What happens to pulsatile flow during early systole?
Forward flow through system Aorta distance and potential energy is stored
What happens at the end of systole?
Aortic valve closes and maximum ventricular contraction
Diastolic flow reversal is a hallmark for vessels that? Supply high resistance vascular bed
What are some vessels that are low resistive flow? ICA Vertebral Renal Celiac Splenic Hepatic
Describe high resistance flow? Pulsatile flow in nature
What vessels are high resistive flow? Aorta ECA Subclavian Iliac Extremity Fasting SMA
Describe low resistance flow? Continuous (Steady) nature throughout systole and diastole
What does a triphasic/biphasic doppler signal become monophasic proximal to stenosis? Increased resistance in the stenotic vessel segment
What are the 3 doppler signal displays? Triphasic Biphasic Monophasic
What disappears in the doppler signal display distal to a stenosis? Reversal flow
Created by: krwcaw01