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Viruses

Chapter6 : Viruses

TermDefinition
antibody a highly specific protein produced by the body in response to a foreign substance and capable of binding to the substance
ATTACHMENT Referring to the association between a virus and its host cell surface
ATTENUATED Referring to the reduced ability of a bacterium or virus to damage to the exposed individual
BACTERIOPHAGE a virus that infects and replicates within bacterial cells
BENIGN referring to a tumor that usually is not life-threatening or likely to spread to another part of the body
BIOSYNTHESIS referring to the manufacture of virus parts during virus replication
cancer a disease characterized by the radiating spread of malignant cells that reproduce at an uncontrolled rate
capsid The protein coat that encloses the genome of a virus
capsomere the protein subunit of a capsid
carcinogen a substance capable of causing cancer
Cervical cancer A type of cancer occurring in the cells of the cervix
dedifferentiation a cellular process in which a cell reverts to an earlier developmental stage
emerging infectious disease a new disease of changing disease that is seen within a population for the first time
endemic referring to a constant presence of disease of persistence of an infectious agent at a low level in a population
endocytosis the process by which many eukaryotic cells take up substances, cells, or viruses from the environment
envelope the flexible membrane of protein and lipid that surrounds many types of viruses
enveloped virus a virus whose genome and capsid is surrounded by a membrane-like covering
Ganglion a dense cluster of nerve cells
genome the complete set of genes in a virus or organism
helix a twisted shape such as that seen in a spring, screw or spiral staircase
hemorrhagic fever a life-threatening illness caused by any of several viruses causing high fever and bleeding disorders that can lead to low blood pressure and death
icosahedron a symmetrical figure composed of 20 triangular faces and 12 points; one of the major shapes of viruses
interferon an antiviral produced by the body cells on exposure to viruses
latency a condition in which a virus integrates into a host chromosome without immediately causing damage
leukemia a cancer of the body’s blood-forming tissues, where the bone marrow produced abnormal white blood cells, which don’t function properly
malignant referring to a tumor that invades the tissue around it and may spread to other parts of the body
metastasize referring to a tumor that spreads from the site of origin to other tissues in the body
mutation a change in the characteristic of an organism rising from a permanent alteration of a DNA sequence
nonenveloped virus a virus consisting of only the viral genome and capsid
nucleocapsid the combination of genome and capsid of a virus
oncogene a segment of DNA that can induce uncontrolled growth of a cell if permitted to function
oncovirus a virus capable of causing a tumor or involved with a cancer
pandemic an illness occurring over a wide geographic area of the world and affecting an exceptionally high proportion of the population
penetration referring to the entry of a virus and its uncoating in a host cell during replication
prion an infectious, self-replicating protein involved in human and animal disease of the brain
productive infection the active assembly and maturation of viruses in an animal cell
proto-oncogenes a region of DNA in the chromosome of human cells; altered by carcinogens into oncogenes that transforms cells
provirus the viral DNA that has integrated into a eukayotic host chromosome and is then passed on from one generation to the next through cell division
release referring to the exiting of a virus from a host cell after replication
reverse transcriptase an enzyme that synthesizes a DNA molecule from the code supplied by an RNA molecule
spike a protein projecting from the viral envelope or capsid that aids in attachment and penetration of a host cell
subunit vaccine a vaccine that contains parts of microorganisms, such as capsular polysaccharides or purified pili
transformation (1) the transfer and integration of DNA fragments from a dead and lysed donor cells to a recipient cell’s chromosome. (2) the conversion of a normal cell into a malignant cell due to the action of a carcinogen or virus
tumor an abnormal uncontrolled growth of cells that has no physical function
tumor suppressor gene a normal gene that inhibits tumor formation
viroid an infectious RNA segment associated with certain plant diseases
virosphere refers to all places where viruses are found or interact with their hosts
virus an infectious agent consisting of DNA or RNA and surrounded by a protein sheath; n some cases, a membranous envelope surrounds the coat
whole-agent vaccine a vaccine consisting of whole bacterial cells, viruses or toxins
zoonotic disease a disease spread from another animal to humans
Created by: drmicro