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Biology words for every biology student sem 1

MACROMOLECULE ( also BIOMOLECULE)(BIOLOGIC AL MACROMOLECULE) ... POLYMER Large carbon containing ( organic) molecules formed by joining smaller molecules called monomers. Four categories include carbohydrates , lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
METABOLISM The chemical processes that occur in an organism to maintain life. Some substances are broken down to yield energy while other substances necessary for life are made.. these processes include cell growh, reproduction, photosynthesis etc
MEIOSIS In sexual reproduction, cell division that produces gametes ( spores in plants). Cells produced are haploid with a single set of chromosomes. Helps keep chromosome number contant in each generation and provides variation
MITOCHONDRIA Organelle in eukaryotic cells where cellular respiration occurs to convert glucose into ATP ( usable cell energy)
MITOSIS Cell division in body cells ( somatic cells) where a single cell divides into two identical cells. this process is for growth, repair, or asexual reproduction
MOLECULE The smallest unit of an element or compound made of two or more atoms held together by stong chemical bonds (Oxygen molecule = O2) Water molecule = H2O
MUTATION Permanent alteration in the DNA's sequence of nucleotides ( nitrogen bases) due to mistakes when DNA is copied or as a result of environmental factors. These can affect a single base pair or a large segment of a chromosome. ( to be continued)
MUTATION ( continued) A change in the DNA's sequence that results in changes in the proteins that are made. This change can be neutral, bad, or good. These are important for genetic variation and essential for evolution ...
NUCLEIC ACID Macromolecule made of nucleotides ( know the 3 parts). Two types are DNA and RNA that contain and transmit genetic information that is important for cellular functions and heredity
NUCLEOTIDE Basic building block or monomer of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.. this is an organic compound made of a nitrogen base, a sugar, and a phosphate group
NUCLEUS Large membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells that contains the genetic material that codes for the vital functions of the cell
OSMOSIS Special type of diffusion, diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane... The water moves from a higher concentration to a lower concentration trying to find a balance... Less solutes in the solution means the water concentration is higher
PEDIGREE A diagram showing the lineage or genealogy of an individual and all the direct ancestors, usually to analyze or follow the inheritance of a trait
PHENOTYPE This is an organism's expressed physical traits ( including their biochemistry). This is determined by the individual's genotype ( genes) and the environment.. Examples of this include traits such as color, height, and behavior
PHOTOSYNTHESIS A metabolic process in organisms with chlorophyll that uses light to produce food ( glucose) from small inorganic molecules carbon dioxide and water. A byproduct of this process is oxygen..This is an energy storing process
PLASMA MEMBRANE An essential structure found in all cells made of lipids and proteins enclosing the cytoplasm and having a major role in regulating what enters and exits the cells ...maintaining homeostasis
POLAR MOLECULE An asymmetrical molecule ( unbalanced in structure) that results in a molecule with a partial positive charge in one part and a partial positive charge in another part. the most important one of these on earth is water...
PRODUCT A chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction. Written on the right of the arrow in a chemical equation
PROKARYOTE A unicellular organism that lacks both membrane- bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. DNA is not organized into chromosomes. Bacteria are this type of organism
PROTEIN A macromolecule made of amino acids held by peptide bonds into a unique 3D shape. This contains nitrogen which distinguishes it from carbs and lipids. There are many examples with many roles ( structural, antibodies, enzymes, hormones, etc
REACTANT Also called substrates when talking about enzymes. The starting material for a chemical reaction. They are written on the left of the arrow in a chemical equation
RECESSIVE This gene or allele is masked by the effects of the dominant gene. This particular trait may be expressed when the genes are in the homozygous condition ( two alike) and the dominant gene is not present( represented with a lower case letter)ff
REPLICATION The process of duplicating or producing an exact copy of DNA. This uses existing DNA as a template for the synthesis of new DNA strands. In eukaryotes this occurs in the cell's nucleus during interphase
RIBOSOME An organelle in all cells that is made of RNA and protein and is the site of protein synthesis. They are free floating in the cytoplasm and in eukaryotes may be attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
RNA abbreviation for a type of nucleic acid( know full name) It is generally single stranded and plays a role in transferring information from DNA to the protein-forming system of the cell
SEX CHROMOSOME A pair of chromosomes involved in sex determination and certain conditions that are called sex-linked. They are in pairs in the body cells (somatic) and singly in gametes( sex cells) They are usually designated X or Y, XX is a female and XY a male
SOLUTE Part of a solution( a mixture where particles of one or more substances are distributed uniformly in another).. This is the dissolved substance. Usually the substance in lesser amount dissolved in another substance
SOLVENT Part of a solution. The dissolving substance.. This is usually present in the greater amount.. Water is called the universal ___. This part of a solution can be solid, liquid , or gas
TRANSCRIPTION Process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA( mRNA), DNA safely and stably stores genetic material in the nuclei of cells as a reference or template
TRANSLATION Process in which ribosomes in the cell's cytoplasm create proteins following transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus. Messenger RNA is decoded by the ribosome and other RNA to produce a specific amino acid chain or polypeptide
Created by: shemehl



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