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Chapter 15B

Special Senses

What are the wavelengths of color that includes all energy waves, from long radio waves to very short gamma waves and X-rays with wavelengths 1mm or less ? Electromagnetic Radiation
Light has a wavelength of _____ ? 400-700 nm
Eyes respond only to what ? Visible light
Packages of energy (photons or quanta) that travels in a wavelike fashion as high speeds is known as ? Light
What is broken into bands of colors (rainbow) when it passes through a spectrum ? Visible light
The bending of light,that is due to change in speed of light when it passes from one transparent medium to another and path of light is at an oblique angle, is known as what ? Refraction
Which lens bends light passing through it,so that rays converge at focal point, and image formed at focal point is upside-down ad reversed from left to right ? Convex lenses
The pathway of light entering the eye occurs in the order off ? 1.cornea 2.Aqueous humor 3.lens 4.vitreous humor 5.neural layer of retina 6.photoreceptors
The ability to adjusts its curvature to allow fine focusing for distant and close vision is known as ? Lens
What are eyes best adapted for ? Distant Vision
The distance beyond in which no changes in lens shape is needed for focusing is known as what ? It is known as the far point of vision
The emmetropic distance for normal eye vision is ? 20 ft
What are the three simulators that requires the eye to make active adjustments ? 1. Accommodation of lenses 2.Near point of vision 3.Presbyopia
what is the changing of lenses shape to increase refraction known as Accommodation of the lenses
The closests point on which the eye can focus is known as Near point of Vision
Loss of accommodation over age 50 is known as Presbyopia
What involves the constriction of the pupils to prevent most divergent light rays from entering eye, and is mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system ? Accommodation pupillary reflex
Medial rotation of the eyeballs causes ______ of eyes toward object being viewed , and is controlled by somatic neuron innervation on medial rectus muscles. Convergence
a condition in which the eyeball is too long,so focal point is in front of retina, and is corrected with concave lenses is known as Myopia (nearsightedness)
a condition is which the eyeballs are too long, so focal point is behind retina, and is corrected with convex lenses is known as Hyperopia ( Farsightedness)
a condition in which unequal curvatures in different parts of the cornea or lens occur and can be corrected with cylindrically ground lenses or laser procedures is known as Astigmatism
are modified neurons that resemble upside-down epithelial cells is known as Photoreceptors (rods and cones)
Cell bodies of the photoreceptors are connected to the synaptic terminal via what ? Inner fibers
Photoreceptors consist of what two segments ? Outer segment and Inner segment
The light receiving region of the photoreceptor that contains visual pigments that changes shape as they absorb light is known as the Outer segment
The segment that joins each cell body and is connected via cilicum to outer segment and to cell body via outer fiber is known as the Inner segment
What are vulnerable to damage and degenerates if retina is detached and destroyed by intense light ? Photoreceptors
What contains a single pigment that makes vision perceived in gray tones only and are sensitive to light, and makes them best suited for night vision and peripheral vision Rods
What contains three-or more pigments which allow for vividly colored sight and non-converging pathways that result in detailed high-resolution vision and has low sensitivity to light and reacts quicker than rods ? Cones
a condition in which a lack of one or more cone pigments and common in 8-10 % of males, in which red cones or green cones are absent is known as Color blindness
A key light-absorbing molecule that combines one of four proteins (opsins) to form visual pigments and is synthesized from Vitamin A is known as Retinal
What is so sensitive to light that causes bleaching to occur after starlight called Rhodospin
what do cones respond to and what do their activation depend on ? Cones respond to bright light and their activation of rods and cones depend on light adaption and dark adaption .
In which adaption does the pupils constrict when moving from darkness to light a glare can be seen due to both rods and cones being strongly stimulated,while large amounts of pigments are broken down instansoulsy ? Light Adaption
Visual acuity improves over how many minutes, and what happens ? Improves after 5-10 minutes, rods system turn off and retinal sensitivity decreases
In which adaption does the pupils dialate when moving from bright light into darkness,and blackness is seen due to cones stop functioning in low intensity light and bright light has bleached rod pigments and so remain turned off Dark Adaption
Rhodospin accumulates in the dark,so retinal sensitivity starts to increase in how many minutes 20-30 minutes
a condition in which rod function is seriously hampered Nyctalopia ( night blindness)
Degenerative retinal disease that destroys rods Retinitis pigmentosa
What are the visual pathways to the brain ? A visual information from the retina passes through relay nuclei to visual cortex
In the visual pathway to the brain axons of retinal cells exists from the ______ and exits the eyes through it. Optic nerve
The x-shaped _____ fibers form the medial aspects of each eye cross over to the opposite side and then continue on as ______ _____ Optic Chiasm, continues on as the optic tracts
As a result each optic nerve, contains fibers from the ________ aspects of the eye and)______ aspects of the opposite eye, that carries information from the same half of visual field. lateral (temporal) and medial (nasal) aspects of opposite eye
Most fibers of the optic tracts continue on to the _________ _______ ________of thalamus. Lateral geniculate nuclei
Thalamic neurons from _____ ______ projects to ________ _______ _____ in occidental lobes, where conscious perceptions of visual images occurs here. optic radiation, projects to primarily visual cortex
area controlling extrinsic eye muscle is known as superior colliculi
Involved with pupillary reflexes is known as prectectal nuclei
of the hypothalamus sets timer for daily biorhythms Suprachiasm nucleus
Visual processing occurs when _____ Cells spilt input into channels that include information about: color and brightness, and also complex info such as angle ,direction, and speed of movements edges( sudden changes in brightness of color). Retinal Cells
Lateral inhibitaion that decodes edge information are the jobs of what two cells ? Amacrine and horizontal cells
Created by: jennysevere24



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